Women, Crime, and Criminal Justice

WOMEN, CRIME, AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE 1

Question1

I believe it is possible to achieve gender equality if women striveto improve criminal justice professions by incorporating their uniqueopinions at work. The approach will give women the opportunity toinclude different viewpoints, which were initially excluded becausethe law was formulated with the male perspectives in mind. Genderequality can only be achieved if the current practices and customsare reviewed to include both male and female standpoints. Besides, itis important to change the family-oriented views that hinder womenfrom performing their duties and establish frameworks that areneutral to both male and female workers. Men and women cannot betreated the same because the needs of women may be overlooked.Accordingly, the criminal justice system should provide a balancedplatform that integrates opinions and experiences from both men andwomen.

Question2

The manterrupting article offers helpful tactics on how femaleworkers can handle unnecessarily interruptions from their malecolleagues. The article provides solutions that every employer andemployee can use to allow teamwork and recognition of women in theworkplace. I believe that the suggestion to support female colleaguesis very crucial in reducing unnecessary interruptions. Most womentolerate unnecessary interruptions because they lack the support oftheir female colleagues. Consequently, women should help boost eachother’s confidence and encourage the female co-workers toarticulate their ideas. However, practicing bystander interventionmay be difficult because some people might view it to be rude. Thus,it may not get the intended intention, but rather create some form ofhostility.

Episode13

I agree that the Orange is the New Black provides some helpfulinsights into the prison life. The corrections officers have beenseen abusing their power and treating inmates in a discriminatingmanner since the beginning of the first season. The injustices in theprison system are best portrayed through the characters of Healy,Mendez, and Caputo. The movie illustrates that incarceration does notalways promote rehabilitation because the inmates are subjected toworse punishments. I agree with Kang’s opinion that the movie doesnot offer alternatives to incarceration. Throughout the first season,only one inmate, Taystee, has been released on parole, but sheencountered challenges that resulted in recidivism. It shows thatincarceration is the only option for these inmates, although it doesnot seem to improve their behavior.

Iwill watch season two because the last episode in season one left mewondering what will happen to Chapman and Pennsatucky. The episodeends with Chapman mercilessly beating Pennsatucky thus, their fatesare unknown. The film finally provokes the audience to questionwhether incarceration has turned Chapman into a monster or if she wascruel all along. I would also like to know how the relationshipbetween Chapman and Healy progresses. At the beginning of the season,Chapman and Healy seemed to have a close relationship. However, alongthe way, they had a falling out, and Healy is doing everything in hispower to make Chapman’s stay at Leitchfield more difficult.Therefore, Chapman is set for an interesting character in the secondseason. I would like to know how Daya’s relationship with Johnprogresses because it contributed to major cover-ups in the firstseason. Furthermore, there is an interesting change in roles at theend of the season where Red is no longer working in the kitchen.Caputo puts Gloria in charge of the kitchen, and she brings in herfellow Hispanic inmates, including Daya, Maritza, Flaca, and Maria toreplace Red’s crew. Although Red’s sabotage plan backfires, Iwill watch the second season and find out if Red will form a new planto retake the kitchen. The season has introduced us to the historiesof a few women, but there is more to learn about these prisoners.Hence, I will watch subsequent seasons and find out more about thecircumstances that led to the incarceration of these women.

Women, Crime, and Criminal Justice

ARTICLE SUMMARY 3

Women,Crime, and Criminal Justice

Women,Crime, and Criminal Justice

Thearticle includes various topics on women, crime, and justice, forexample, violence against women, corporate violence, battered women,international law and women who are charged with crime. It talksabout justice among the minority, and women serving in the statesupreme courts. The author addresses women`s access to justice, inaddition to the role of women within the international criminaljustice settings. He further talks about international perspective onviolence against women such as femicide, sex trafficking, and sexwork.

Theauthor also discusses court systems whereby he gives differentclassifications such as state courts and courts of appeals that leadto discretion. The women`s right cases and how women in the legalprofession contribute to the judicial services is also addressed. Thearticle further talks about how the legal context can interfere withthe judicial decisions.

Theauthor also talks about how participation of women has been improvedin the criminal justice system. He provides statistics on the manywomen working in the criminal justice system as police officers,judges, and lawyers. The number is increasing because differentlobbying groups and particularly feminist lobbying groups havestrengthened different laws that deal with women, crime, and criminaljustice. The article further explores how female judges rule and givejustice. However, the mentioned depends on the type of the case.Therefore, cases play a great role in ensuring that justice isadministered to the affected parties.

Finally,the author talks about the role of gender in realizing justice. Inthe same case, he talks about elected justices and appointed ones andthe efficiency of each one of them. The author emphasizes thatjustice is important to all regardless of gender.

References

McCall,M. (2008). Structuring gender`s impact: Judicial voting acrosscriminal justice cases.American Politics Research, 36(2), 264-296.

Women, Crime, and Criminal Justice

Women,Crime, and Criminal Justice

Women,Crime, and Criminal Justice

Question1

Iwould advise women working in policing, corrections, or offenderservices to maintain professional competency at all times. Women haveto go an extra mile to prove that they deserve the job or a promotionas compared to their male counterparts. Hence, the officers have tomaintain a good performance record because educational qualificationsare not enough to eliminate the barriers brought by the glass ceilingand gender discrimination (Mallicoat, 2012). Additionally, the femaleofficers should maintain excellent communication skills. The lawenforcement jobs are dangerous, and situations can turn volatileunexpectedly. Accordingly, a female officer should know how to dealwith such situations by using her communication skills (Mallicoat,2012). On the other hand, the female officers have to maintain apositive working relationship with colleagues, offenders, inmates, orparolees. For example, the officers should not consider the offendersto be mere criminals. Instead, they should treat them as human beingswho made some mistakes thus, making it easy to rehabilitate them(Mallicoat, 2012).

Question2

Uponrelease, Taystee experienced problems that hindered successfulreintegration into the society. At first, Taystee could not secure aproper living arrangement. Thus, she had to live with her secondcousin where she was forced to sleep on the floor. She could not geta well-paying job despite going to three interviews per week. Taysteealso encountered psychological problems because she did not havesocial connections or friends. For example, Taystee indicates thatshe did not have anyone to inquire about her day because everyone sheknew was poor, in jail, or dead. Therefore, the transition fromprison to life became devastating for Taystee, which resulted inrecidivism. Former female inmates also have challenges whenreestablishing a family life. For example, it is hard to regainphysical and legal custody of their children.

However,the prison system should provide education and vocational training toreduce recidivism rates. Most inmates lack education, vocationalskills, and steady job history. Therefore, the prisoners will have abetter chance of finding jobs after release. The prisons also shouldencourage and allow inmates to have constant communication withpeople from outside the prison. The prison policies should encouragefamily visits, which will allow the prisoners to maintain closerelationships with their families and friends. Thus, forming socialconnections will be much easier, which will promote successfulre-entry into the society.

References

Mallicoat,S. L. (2012). Women professionals: Police, Corrections, and OffenderServices.

Womenand crime: A text/reader.(462-474).Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE.

Women, Crime, and Criminal Justice

Women,Crime, and Criminal Justice

Women,Crime, and Criminal Justice

Mathews,Monk-Tuner, and Sumter (2010) in their article entitled, “Promotionalopportunities,”sought to provide a better understanding of how the women working inthe corrections observed chances in their area. According to theauthors, prior studies indicate that women working in correctionfacilities face undesirable sensitivities by workmates, harassment,as well as the problems of balancing work and home life. Given thatwomen were reported as being in a separate minority in the middle ofthe correctional constables, particularly at the higher positions, itwas evident that the women bosses had scarcer promotional chances inthe female as opposed to the make-dominated job surroundings.

Mathews,Monk-Tuner, and Sumter (2010) utilized semi-structured interviewswith individual women working or had been employed in the correctionsin Virginia State. The qualitative method used allowed theresearchers to gather sufficient information for realizing the studyobjective. The findings indicated that 10 out of the 14 womeninterviewed testified that they had been promoted no less than onceduring their career. The majority of the participants felt that themen had higher chances of promotions as opposed to the women. Therespondents had the feeling that men were endorsed more often thanthe women for the reason that they dominated the managerial as wellas the supervisory positions. The respondents also had moreinteractions with the male co-workers than women during their workingdays.

Basedon these findings, the authors suggested that since the womenrepresented a different minority in the middle of the correctionalworkers, it was imperious for policy makers to introduce programsthat would help progress women into higher positions. Mathews,Monk-Tuner, and Sumter (2010) concluded that if the absence ofrepresentation seems rooted and no enhancement in gender multiplicityis witnessed across time, then it might be fitting to set timetablesas well as guidelines to realize the goal of gender variety incorrections.

Reference

Mathews,C., Monk-Tuner, E., &amp Sumter, M. (2010). Promotionalopportunities: How women in corrections perceive their chances foradvancement at work. GenderIssues, 27,53-66.

Women, Crime, and Criminal Justice

Women,Crime, and Criminal Justice

Women,Crime, and Criminal Justice

Accordingto research, most female inmates have viral infections, mentalillnesses, and chronic diseases. However, the health care needs ofthese prisoners are not met during incarceration. Upon release, theinmates still lack access to the much-needed health care services.Therefore, the health barriers make re-entry into the society muchmore challenging. As a result, Reverend Carmen Warner-Robbins formedthe Welcome Home Ministries, a non-profit, faith-based organizationto serve the health care needs of post-incarcerated women(Warner-Robbins,Madrazo &amp Leitzell, 2011). The organization’spurpose is to ensure that the former prisoners receive medical careand educate them on women medication and treatment plans.

Mostfemale prisoners are usually victims of emotional and physicalviolence, economic disadvantage, mental illnesses, substance and drugabuse. Unfortunately, these inmates are given inappropriate healthcare services and lack proper attention to address the risk factorsthat influenced their criminal behavior (Warner-Robbins, Madrazo &ampLeitzell, 2011). On the other hand, former prisoners re-entering thesociety are hesitant to seek medical services due to fear ofconditions potentially affecting their health such as HIV or othersexually transmitted diseases. These women are also concerned aboutdouble stigmatization owing to their criminal past and embarrassinghealth conditions. Besides, they face obstacles when accessing andadhering to medication due to lack of resources and education(Warner-Robbins, Madrazo &amp Leitzell, 2011).

Asa result, Welcome Home Ministries developed a plan to promote healthamong former female inmates suffering from mental illnesses, breastand cervical cancer, hepatitis, tuberculosis, HIV, hypertension,dental and eyesight problems. The findings showed that effectivescreening for these conditions after incarceration is vital tosuccessful re-entry (Warner-Robbins, Madrazo &amp Leitzell, 2011).It is also imperative to educate the women on the advantages of earlytesting and detection because it increases the chances of treatingthese conditions. Furthermore, the women should visit health carecenters or institutions such as Welcome Home Ministries for regularevaluation and further assessment (Warner-Robbins, Madrazo &ampLeitzell, 2011).

References

Warner-Robbins,C., Madrazo, N. &amp Leitzell, C. (2011). Meeting the health needsof post-incarcerated women: How Welcome Home Ministries helps bridgethe gap and implication for public health professionals. HomeHealth Care Management and Practice,23(3): 168-175.

Women, Crime, and Criminal Justice

Women,Crime, and Criminal Justice

Women,Crime, and Criminal Justice

Question1

Thepopulation in women’s prisons is increasing due to the harshpunishments for minor offenses. However, the criminal justice systemcan reduce the incarceration rate of female offenders by usingcommunity corrections and halfway houses. These facilities can beused to rehabilitate female offenders after committing minor crimesinstead of incarcerating them. Most female offenders pose minimalthreat to the society hence, they can safely serve their sentencesin a community setting. These centers will also increase theopportunities to handle the issue of female offenders such assubstance abuse, sexual assault, violence, and mental issues, whichcontribute to criminal behavior. Consequently, it will ensure thatthe prisons are only reserved for criminals who need to beincarcerated due to the seriousness of their crimes or for publicsafety.

Question2

Episode11 of Orangeis the New Blackshows cover-ups of Daya’s pregnancy and Miller’s death. I believethat the cover-ups only serve to protect the self-interests of thepeople involved. For example, Officer John, Daya, and Aleida decideto conceal the pregnancy to protect John from losing his job andgoing to prison for sexual assault. Later, Red decides to help Dayaunder the pretense that she does not want John to lose his job or goto prison. Red wants Daya to sleep with Officer Mendez and laterblame him for the pregnancy. However, I believe that Red is onlyhelping Daya for selfish reasons because she wants to punish Mendezfor selling drugs to the inmates and causing Miller’s death. On theother hand, the officers decided to cover-up Miller’s death toavoid an investigation. When Officer John explains that their workmanual requires them to inform the FBI of any suspicious death, theprison administrator indicates that there is nothing to beinvestigated. Besides, they cremated Miller’s body to eliminate anypossibility of an investigation. Therefore, they are covering up thedeath to protect their jobs.

Question3

Chapmanplanned a memorial service for Miller’s death, but none of theother inmates showed up except Alex. Chapman gets the memorialservice wrong because she makes it about her emotional problemsinstead of using it as a way to honor Miller. It is as if Chapman isforcing the other inmates to mourn to make her feel better about herproblems. For example, Chapman explains that she is the only one whocares that a girl is dead, but we see other inmates gathered anddrinking to honor Miller. Chapman gets the memorial wrong since shebarely interacted with Miller. For example, when Chapman indicatesthat she will plan a memorial for Miller, Nicky wondered what Chapmanwould do to honor someone she did not know.

Laterin the episode, Larry harms the inmates by exposing details aboutthem that he learned from Chapman. For example, he narrates howSuzanne was following Chapman during her first days in prison. Larryrefers to Suzanne as an insane person who should be in thepsychiatric ward. Larry’s words hurt Suzanne because we see hercrying alone in bed. Previously, Suzanne had confessed to Chapmanthat being in the psychiatric ward is one of the most horriblethings, and she cannot wish it even for the worst criminal. Larryalso discusses how Chapman slept with her eyes open due to fear ofher roommate, Claudette,whois rumored to be a murder. Before the talk show, Chapman andClaudetteseem to be developing a good relationship. However, Larry destroysthat relationship as we later see Claudettefurious and hurt by Chapman’s perception of her. Larry made theinmates sound like they were terrible criminals, although they arejust women who are trying to cope with prison life.

DuringThanksgiving Day, Healy told Larry that Chapman was sleeping withAlex. Therefore, I believe that Larry harms the inmates as areiteration for Chapman’s betrayal. The two missteps are relatedbecause Chapman’s mistake for the memorial service is related tothe problems she has with Larry since the Thanksgiving Day. Likewise,Larry’s revelation about Chapman’s prison experiences is a way ofgetting back at Chapman for her infidelity.

Women, Crime, and Criminal Justice

Women,Crime, and Criminal Justice

Women,Crime, and Criminal Justice

Question1

Thewomen’s prisons have the same architectural design and offersimilar services as the prisons for male offenders. Instead, an idealfemale prison should have programs and facilities developed with theneeds of women in mind. Male and female inmates portray differentenvironmental behavior when they adjust to the prison life.Therefore, the female prison should have more training programs andmedical care services that meet the unique needs of women.Incarceration has adverse effects on the mental health of femaleinmates. Thus, the prisons should have facilities that address themental health issues, alcohol, and drug abuse problems among femaleprisoners. The prisons should also have programs that give theinmates an opportunity to learn new skills, which they can use uponrelease to improve their life and reduce recidivism.

Question2

Episode11 of Orangeis the New Blackshows inmates being recruited to scare teenage girls to eliminatetheir delinquent behavior. However, the program appears to be a formof entertainment for the inmates. The prisoners are excited about theopportunity to scare the young girls, but they do not seem concernedabout the program’s objective. Conversely, some of the teenagers inthe program already have a negative attitude because they do not carewhether they end up in prison or not. For example, the girl in awheelchair views the scare tactics as a challenge to her capabilityand delinquent behavior.

Consequently,the scared straight programs do not work because they only focus onscaring the teenagers. Instead, the programs should concentrate onbehavior change through role modeling and social interaction withpeople portraying positive behavior. On the other hand, some of theteenagers in the programs may perceive the inmates as people worthemulating. Therefore, it may end up being more harmful and increasedelinquency. In its place, parents and the society should useeffective interventions that will reinforce positive behaviors suchas better social skills and anger management techniques.

Women, Crime, and Criminal Justice

Women,Crime, and Criminal Justice

Mothersin Trouble: Coping with actual or pending separation from childrendue to incarceration by Katarzyna and Jane Siegel

Despitethe increasing social problems, there are few types of research inthe criminal justice and correction field, which focus on theexperience of female offenders as caregivers and mother. From theresults of interviews conducted on 74 mothers, the authors summarizedthe incarcerated mothers’ experiences before trial and duringincarceration.

Thearticle blames gender blind sentencing and the war on drugs as theprimary causes of female imprisonment. For instance, most women wereincarcerated following drug-related offenses. They were eitheralcohol or drug abusers before incarceration as an adaptationstrategy to earlier life violence and abuse.

Thearticle summarizes some shared characteristics and challenges amongfemale prisoners such as poverty, single parenthood, racism andidentified that they are racial minorities at least two children perincarcerated mother. Incarnated mother experienced several challengesincluding trauma, childhood sexual abuse and adulthood and teenagevictimizations.

Intheir article, they summarized the actual coping strategies thatamerican female offenders used to cope and survive in prisons due toseparation from their children following incarceration. Theseincluded real mother role, mothering from jail, self-transformation,the redefinition of role, disassociating from the prison identity,blaming oneself and planning and preparation. The research dataindicates that some mothers employed more than one strategy andpreferred using emotion-focused and adaptive coping strategies.Additionally, these coping strategies required coping resources suchas energy and health, social skills and support, problem-solvingskills, material resources and positive beliefs. The copingstrategies did not work for the mothers from disadvantaged and lowsocioeconomic strata because they had no access to the requiredresources. Therefore, they opted for the less efficientemotion-focused strategies that did not work well for them.Therefore, although such mothers attempted to respond actively tostress and separation, they were unsuccessful.

Inconclusion, therefore, the article offers crucial insights to thetopic of ‘mothers in the criminal system of justice’ and allowsanalysis of dynamic coping process of mothers dealing with separationfrom their young ones and incarceration.

References

Celinska,K., &amp Siegel, J. A. (December 01, 2010). Mothers in Trouble:Coping With Actual or Pending Separation From Children Due toIncarceration.&nbspThePrison Journal,90,&nbsp4.)