Whydid independence come to Africa just after the Second World War?
Itis evident that the independence of the African countries came justafter the end of the Second World War. Essentially, apart fromEthiopia that was never colonized, all other countries in Africaattained self-rule after the Second World War. This work is going tofocus majorly on the causes of decolonization of Africa after thewar, the process of decolonization, the impact of the colonial era tothe postcolonial states as well as the role of the StructuralAdjustment Programs to the African states.
TheSecond World War altered the worldwide request and ideological needssignificantly. Despite the fact that it was not clear at the time,these developments had a large impact in Africa, just like in Americaand Europe. The old pioneer countries in the world, France andBritain, had lost the struggle or fight thus, their status as mostpowerful nations globally was currently over. They had been overtakenby the USA and the USSR, two countries that for various reasonsquestioned imperialism. As such, it proved extremely troublesome forthe advocates of colonialism to continue campaigning for theharassment of Africans especially, in the new political atmosphere.Such ethical issues, alongside the budgetary expenses, led to adevelopment away from imperialism.
Anothercause of decolonization after the Second World War was thesettlements discontented thereafter. A considerable number of Africanstates gave assets and labor to their colonizers amid World War Twosince they thought they would accomplish their freedom in the eventthat they helped on the grounds, which was what they were guaranteedin the Atlantic Charter and by their Colonial rulers. This left thefighters bitter thus resorted to fighting for self-rule since theyhad acquired military skills after the war.
Theface of decolonization
Essentiallyafter the Second World War decolonization became a universalphenomenon. In this case, many countries in Africa, Asia, and LatinAmerica gained their independence between the years 1945 and 1960. Assuch, the decolonization process can be said to be universal. It isalso important to point out that the process is taken to decolonizevaried across these continents. It was peaceful and organized in someregions whereas other areas acquired it through rebellion anduprisings.
Impactof the colonial legacy
Thecolonial legacy by no means has greatly impacted on the economic aswell as the political freedom since Africa gained independence. Theemergence of two world superpowers played a key role in impacting theeconomic and political aspects in Africa even after gaining theirindependence. For instance, the cold between these two superpowerscompelled most independent states of Africa to formulate political aswell as economic policies inclined to their economic and politicalphilosophy of these superpowers. Those that did not succumb to thepressure of the cold war connected with nonpartisan states. In thiscase, for example, the USA used economic aid and technological helpaid to encourage the newly independent states to side with themwhereas the Soviet Union, on the other hand, engaged comparativestrategies in to persuade the newly independent states that socialismor communism for that matter was an inherently non-imperialisteconomic and political philosophy. As such, most of these states haveheld the superpowers` ideologies to date.
Roleof the Structural Adjustment Programs
TheStructural Adjustment Programs came about as a result of a debtcrisis that hit the world, especially the developing nations at theadvent of the 1980s. Africa comprising virtually all the developingcountries had borrowed huge loans at very low-interest rates fromdeveloped countries such as the USA in the 1970s. As a means to avertinflation the US banks increased the rates drastically. Followingthis, the African countries had to take loans yet again in order topay these high interests. Hence, there is an increase in povertylevels in Africa as well as the dependence of the developing Africannations on the developed nations. Structural Adjustment programs suchas those of the IMF and the World Bank were put in place in order tohelp the developing countries however, their objectives have notbeen fully met thus African states continue to be poorer each day.
Inconclusion, from the above discussion we can point out that most ofthe post-imperial situations in the African states trace their rootto the colonial past. Therefore, the economic, political, and thesocial ideologies propagated during the colonial period are onlybeing modified as time goes by to suit the present situation.