Green Roofs for flood mitigation in Jeddah 1
The Visibility of Applying Green Roofs forFlood Mitigation in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Green roofs are essential to the overall growthand development of urban structures and cities. Green roofingtechniques form are part of green construction methods, which arethat are significant for environmental sustainability. Countries thatlead in green roof technology are Germany, the United States, The UK,and Canada. Research shows that arid areas stand to gain frominvesting in green roofing. Arid regions located in the Red Sea, theArabian Gulf, and the Middle East can use green roof technology tomitigate flash floods. The city of Jeddah, which is located in SaudiArabia, is one of the urbanized regions expanding at a high rate.Jeddah can borrow techniques from leading countries to enhance itssustainability in the long term. Hence, the KSA needs to focus ongovernment land to maximize on the benefits of green roofing.
List of Tables 4
Chapter 1: Introduction 5
1.1. Problem Statement 5
1.2. Construction of Green Roofs for Flood Mitigation 5
1.3. Benefits of Applying Green Roofs in Arid Places 6
1.4. Application of Green Roofs in Jeddah 8
1.5. Literature Review 10
1.5.1. How are Green Roofs Useful in my Area of Study? 10
1.5.2. Policies and Incentives Related to Green Roofs 10
1.5.3. Analysis of Research, which Indicates the Success of Green Roofs in Arid Regions 12
1.5. 4. What are the Gaps in Research that Focuses on Green Roofing? 12
1.5.5 Purpose and Objectives 13
Chapter 2: approaches and Methods 14
2.1. Research Methodology 14
2.2. Discussion 14
Chapter 3: conclusion 15
Table1: Green Roof Systems……………………………………………………………………9
Chapter1: Introduction1.1.Problem Statement
Green building has slowly gained recognition indifferent parts of the globe over the years owing to theenvironmental advantages it provides in a given society. There aremany forms of green building, which continue to emerge because of thedemand for sustainable living (Getter & Rowe, 2008).One of the concepts that is gaining awareness in the constructionindustry in applying green roofs in both private homes, publicbuildings, and commercial structures. The primary function of greenroofing is for environmental benefits, which range from floodmitigation to temperature regulation. However, the incorporation ofthis technique during roofing has both social and economicadvantages, which a society can experience in the short and long term(Gibbs et al., 2006). Currently, countries indesert regions such as the Red Sea, the Sub Saharan Desert, and theUnited Arab Emirates experience flooding during the winter and therainy season. Applying green roofs is one of the techniques, whichcan mitigate flash floods and runoff in cities like Jeddah that arepreview to such occurrences. The proposal advocates for theconstruction of green roofs for flood mitigation in Jeddah. Emphasiswill focus on the gaps in this research, and the way forward inbridging the gaps (Alexandri, 2008).
Applyinggreen roofs in arid areas is essential in controlling floodmitigation. Jeddah is one of the cities, which can gain from greenroofing owing to its arid temperatures.
1.2.Construction of Green Roofs for Flood Mitigation
Thevisibility of green roofs is common in some parts of the world suchas Germany, the United States, and the UK. These countries get creditbecause of their geopolitical role, economic strength and high GDPper capita, and strong social-cultural influence. Moreover, there isa misconception that green infrastructure is overrated in westernareas and is not catching on in new places. However, current researchis focusing on arid areas such as the Middle East, the United ArabEmirates, and the Red Sea, which are incorporating new methods ofgreen roofing in their construction. The research is essential inanswering questions identified in the research gap concerning greenroofing in arid areas (Getter & Rowe, 2008).
Green roofing is predominant in places thathave heavy rains and the tropical weather because the weatherpatterns are conducive for growth. Resent research reveals that whiledeserts experience dry climate and extensive heat, they are prone toflash floods and runoffs. One of the reasons for this occurrence inthe last ten years is that people in desert lands do not focus theirresearch on rainfall patterns. Hence, they are unprepared forunpredictable heavy rains, which destruct human lives and property.Apart from this, the government spends a significant amount offunding restoring urban centers, townships, and buildings affected byfloods. Therefore, the visibility of applying green roofs for floodmitigation is slowly gaining ground in arid regions like Jeddah(Alnaser, 2008).
Green roofing improves urban planning given that houses require amplespace when installing an effective roofing system. Urban planning isessential in the present times owing to the increased expansion ofcities. The city council in Jeddah has the responsibility of updatingdifferent structures, buildings, roads, and drainage systems. In mostcases, the local authorities lag behind in their duties, whichreflect on the management of the city (Nardiniet al., 2011). This is a problem considering that the economicgrowth of the city is not reflective on the government’s investmentin its public urban structures. If the government takes theinitiative to improve on public buildings and land, the public willdevelop at a decent rate without having to worry about unequal levelof growth. The construction of green roofs for flood mitigation isone of the ways that the government can improve the rate ofdevelopment in Jeddah and different cities in the KSA (Liaw,et al., 2015).
1.3.Benefits of Applying Green Roofs in Arid Places
Many benefits come with the placement of greenroofs during construction. Green roofing undoubtedly providesecological benefits, which sustain the environment. However, thesebenefits touch on all aspects of life making green roofing a risingphenomenon in dry regions. The first benefit of green roofing is thatit balances the climatic conditions of a given place(Tolderlund et al., 2010). In the case of dryareas, green roofs provide the greenery needed to attract both plantsand animals, which thrive on vegetation. Hence, green roofs providegreen corridors in houses and compliment the natural surroundingslike forests, parks, and gardens, which provide the much-neededrainfall in dry lands. In contrast, green roofs provide the balanceneeded by non-arid places whose climates are changing to arid land.They restore the wet climate through the introduction of strongerplants, which can adapt to harsh climate. Therefore, green rooftechnology provides the biodiversity needed to withstand differentclimatic conditions (Alnaser, 2008).
Secondly, green roofs are essential for floodmitigation. As mentioned earlier, desert areas and barren soil do notexperience much rainfall. Research shows that such places are proneto flash floods during the cold and rainy season. Floods representone of the natural calamities, which cause destruction to urbandevelopment’s (Li, & Yeung, 2014).Some of the negative outcomes of flash floods are propertydestruction, loss of lives, runoffs, destruction of roads, andlandslides in rural areas. Green roofs are vital for managing heavyrains and storm water, which is a significant problem in expandingcities. Some cities do not have appropriate planning given thatbuildings and infrastructure lack the required drainage standardsneeded for proper flow of water from natural and manmade sources(Subyani, 2011). In the past years, the Saudigovernment has invested in modern techniques in gray construction,which improve the longevity of new structures. The incorporation ofgreen roofs will improve on the organization of new city plans andconstructions because they need proper planning, measurements, andinstallation. Therefore, such roofs ensure emphasis on properdrainage systems, which are essential for eliminating unplanned andweak buildings. Installing green roofs in government buildings willcover a wide range of property. As a result, green technology is oneof the solutions for preventing floods and avoiding the negativeoutcomes of floods (Behm, 2012).
Thirdly, green roofing provides social andeconomic benefits in cities that invest in such technology. Greenroofs increases the number of gardens, trees, and grass needed forthe beautification of the city. The city of Jeddah is strategic tothe kingdom of Saudi Arabia because it attracts both foreign andlocal investors. Green roofs expand the number of recreational areasto rooftops, penthouses, and high rises in the city. People do nothave to go to the park or gardens to enjoy recreational therapyneeded for relaxation during after work hours, weekends, and inholidays (Elborombaly & Molina-Prieto, 2013).
Lastly, green technology cools and air in harshdeserts, which are unhealthy and uncomfortable during peak times. Inaddition, green roofs provide the required vegetation and greeneryfor cleaning the polluted and dusty air, which result from increaseddevelopment and excessive sand in dry regions. Clean air enhances thelongevity of human lives by providing the healthy atmosphere andecological system. Hence, this reduces the number of deaths fromchest infections, cancerous conditions, and lung disease (Baumert,2015).
1.4.Application of Green Roofs in Jeddah
Intoday’s era, there are techniques of applying green roofs owing tothe extensive development of green construction. Each place or regionhas a specific method, which defines its uniqueness in terms ofquality, concerns, and environmental factors. In Jeddah, thegovernment has invested in gray infrastructure that focuses onconstruction using concrete and steel. While this process hasinitiated sustainable measures in building and construction, most ofthe benefits of green building are ineffective without theincorporation of green roofing. The benefits of green roofing areevident because of its technology and method of construction. Mostroofs have irrigation systems and drainage plans owing to theexistence of additional layers (Architectural ServicesDepartment, 2006).
Theproposal focuses on investing in green roofing techniques ingovernment buildings as opposed to private buildings. Notably, it isadvisable to apply green roofing mechanisms in all buildings.However, focusing on government property and structures can serve asa platform for further investment in other buildings. Firstly, thegovernment should spearhead this campaign and serve as an example toprivate developers. Secondly, the process of roofing government’sstructures is a better strategy economically because the governmentwill not have to budget for compensation for private land (Li,& Yeung, 2014). Thirdly, the government hasa lot of land in the region, which is primarily for the benefit ofthe people. As such, all people will experience the advantages ofgreen roofing of government property. In addition, the government andthe municipality will be in charge of the financial and laborresponsibility (Axter,2008).
Lastly, focusing on government property willnot target homeowners who may face potential financial difficultyowing to the high land value in Jeddah and Saudi Arabia as a whole.Green roofing is costly especially during the initial stages. Thegovernment should take the initiative to use green roofing technologyon its structures to create awareness to the general population forflood mitigation in the region (Alexandri, 2008).
Studies show that green roofs should weigh between 60 and 150kg/m2because the roofs require adequate space, strength, and measurement.The weight is essential for the support of trees, plant, gravel andwalkways, which should be, calculated appropriately. Expertsencourage this weight to discourage overload of materials. Themeasurement also dictates on the type of material to place on theroof. The measurements vary depending on the structure, space, andexpected green roof and can double if the roof is intended to supportmore plants and a larger space (Architectural Services Department,2006).
Jeddah is at a point where its rate of development is comparable toalternative cities across the globe. Hence, it has to develop at thesame rate as cities with evolving urban plans. One of the strategiesthat the government can adopt in order to compliment the citiesgrowth is by introducing compulsory laws, which advocate for betterarchitectural plans, construction methods, roads, and new buildings.The government should also contract companies, which have extensiveknowledge on green building in order to ensure proper environmentalsustainability and management. Laws and regulations are vital indictating the investments, practices, and decisions of privateactors. Thus, if the government works hand in hand with both publicand private shareholders in the industry. The city will adopt a newlifestyle, which will solve recurring problems such as floods,unplanned buildings, poor drainage systems, and mushrooming slums inthe cities. This will give Jeddah the international status it needsto attract more investors (Snodgrass& McIntyre, 2010).
Saeid (2011) discusses that the fast growth of the human populationhas influenced the demand for the emergence of technology, which canenhance global sustainability and preserve the earth’s naturalresources. Notably, human beings rely heavily on natural resourcesand nature as a whole. On the other hand, nature cannot sustain therising needs of human beings. Hence, experts need to introducesystems, which balance the two factors without compromising on thequality of the environmental resources. Synder (2009) states thatcities in deserts have little knowledge of green roof building seeingas their social-cultural, economic, political, and environmentalaspects of their lifestyle do not encourage such technology. However,in the past twenty-five years, members of the UAE (United ArabEmirates) have experienced considerable change in all aspects oftheir lifestyle. This is because governments such as the governmentof Abu Dhabi are introducing policies, which encourage green buildingand construction in urban and rural areas. As a result, green roofbuilding is becoming a predominant method of environmentalsustainability and flood management in the region suggests (St Clair,2009)
1.51.Benefits of Green Roofing as a Sustainable Building Method
The characteristics of green roofs, including the substrate used, theplant growing medium and the drainage layer determines the waterretention ability of the green roof (Banting et al., 2005). Theresearch conducted by Simmons et al. (2008), the substrate used andthe type of drainage also affects the water retention ability of thegreen roof. Other than the materials used in the implementation ofthe green roofs, the age of the green roof also significantly affectthe water retention ability of the green roof. According to theresearch study conducted by Getter et al. (2007), the other benefitof green roofs is the ability to manage runoffs. Most arid areas arecharacterized by long periods of dry climatic conditions and shortand temporal seasons of rain. However, during these rainy seasons,the rain is excess and as such leads to destruction instead ofincreased productivity.
The main motivation of the green roof application in the arid areasderives from the many advantages and benefits associated with thegreen roofs. The main benefit is changing the climatic conditions ofthe arid areas and the changing the biodiversity of these areas. Theyact as the green corridor, which then attracts the other forms ofwildlife and people in the areas. According to Kim (2004), greenroofs acts to connect the fragmented habitats with each other thuspromoting biodiversity of the regions. Research works that have beenconducted on the application of green roofs have shown that there area variety of species in the soil used in green roofs. According tothe research conducted by Schrader and Boning (2006), there are threemain factors that contribute to the biodiversity of the green roofs.These factors include the type of substrate used for theimplementation of the green roofs, the process of soil formationduring the maturation of the substrate and the increasing biologicalactivity and thus the increasing amounts of organic matter in thesoil.
1.5.2.History of Green Roof Buildings
According to (Behm, 2012) green roof technology dates back to theancient times of the Babylon and Roman Empire. At the time, peoplegrew trees on the rooftop of buildings and structures in the cities.The growth of urbanization in different capital cities gets creditfor the need to promote greeneries. For example, the United Statesresorted to the use of green roofs in major cities such as New Yorkto complement the building of parks and recreational facilities inthe inner city. Currently, Germany is the leader in green roofstechnology seeing as the countries percentage of houses with greenroof technology is above 10%. Hence, arid places can learn from worldleaders in conservation technology as a means of conserving theenvironment (Li & Yeung, 2014).
1.5.3.Comparison of Jeddah to other Arid Places
Elborombaly&Molina-Prieto (2013) discusses that the city ofJeddah has a similar dynamic like that of Abu Dhabi given that theyare both located in dry lands. Their humid environments rarelyexperience large amounts of rain. Conversely, during seasons ofwinter and cold winds, the country experiences heavy rains thatresult in flash floods. The main issue that Jeddah faces is thatvarious sections of the city are expanding without the properbuilding and urban planning. One of the ways that the city can bebest served is by adopting policies like that of Abu Dhabi whichencourage both homeowners and commercial buildings to incorporategreen roofs as one of the green building concepts. Therefore, morehomeowners are aware of how to incorporate green roofs in theirhouses mentions (Baumert, 2015).
In contrast, (Tolderlund, 2010), explains that new trends in greenbuilding are targeting arid and semi arid areas. Some of the benefitsthat dry lands can experience from green roofs include the increaseof cool and clean air in the environment, energy conservation,providing habitats for domestic animals and wildlife, managing stormwater and improving the shelf life of the green roofs. According tothe author, green roofs are a system of living, which is an extensionof a roof. As such, this form of technology is essential in managingstorm water quality in arid and semi arid areas whereby greenrooftops have the ability to filter and retain storm water reducingthe pressure and peak flow of water into the drainage systems. Hence,applying green roof technologies in dry lands like Jeddah will reduceflooding supports (Li & Yeung, 2014).
1.5.4.Use of Green Roofs across the Globe
Notably, green roofing systems are predominant is places like Europe,Asia, and northern America. If anything, the technology has existedfor decades hence making such societies enjoy the short and long-termbenefits of green roof investments. On the other hand, continentswith large desert regions like the United Arab Emirates, the ArabianGulf, and most parts of the Middle East do not have much knowledge ofgreen roof technologies. It is difficult to grow plants in suchregions owing to high levels of humidity, extensive heat& highsolar radiation, and low precipitation. The climatic condition inJeddah makes it challenging to grow plants on top of roofs. However,new methods of green roofing ensures that such plants can sustain thedry lands concludes (Tolderlund, 2010),
(Subyani, 2011) argues that flash floods are one of the naturalevents, which pose a threat to the lives of people, property, andoverall development in affected communities. They are predominant incities immediately after the short and heavy rainfall season. Inaddition, (Alnaser, 2008) explains that countries and regions likeBahrain, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates need to invest insustainable methods and practices given that individuals spend 90% oftheir time indoors. Hence, they stand to benefit from policies, whichpromote sustainable and green building. While such regions are dryand humid due to the extensive deserts in the areas, they still faceproblems of flash floods. Hence, more builders and investors intendto adopt green building or incorporate green roofs on their buildingto enhance sustainable living standards summarizes (Synder, 2009).
1.5.5.Reasons why Jeddah needs Green Roofs
(Subyani, 2011) uses Jeddah city as an example of an area, which hasexperienced challenges of unexpected floods in the 2009 and 2011. Thecity is located in Saudi Arabia, which is in the Red Sea andtherefore stands to benefit from the incorporation of green roofs ontheir housing structure and buildings as a whole. Notably, theexperience of flash floods is a new dynamic considering that theregion does not have a record of flash floods in the previous fivedecades. (Baumert, 2015) discusses that the occurrence of floods inthe city is from the collection of the intensity of rainfall in theregion, land use, surface runoff, and topography that all influencethe generation of floods in the arid lands. Moreover, Saeid (2011)mentions that the prevalence of long-term aridity gets credit for thelack of knowledge in handling flash floods in arid cities. In turn,constructors, builders, and investors select regions, which have ahigh affinity for flash flooding without performing adequateresearch. Flood mitigation has slowly been gaining ground in Jeddahand different parts of Saudi Arabia owing to the increased number ofcausalities caused by floods in the dry lands. (Tolderlund, 2010),concludes by stating that the KSA as a whole can gain considerablyfrom the introduction of green roofs, which will help mitigate therising rate of flash floods in the regions.
Gibbs, et al, (2016) explains that while green roofs are predominantin European nations owing to their use of this type of technology fordecades, places in mid western parts of the United States dub thisform of building as relatively new. In the past, such places enjoyedlarge amounts of forestry and greeneries. However, the increasedurbanization in the mid west is one of the reasons for the high rateof impervious land, high heat, and the increase of storm waterrunoffs. Dry places like the United Arab Emirates face the sameissues owing to their natural landscape, which cannot accommodateextensive forestry. Like most cities, Jeddah is developing at a highrate because of the increased need for housing in the coastal plainof western Saudi Arabia explains (Behm, 2012).
1.5.6.Advantages of Green Roof Technology in the City of Jeddah
Gibbset al, (2006) states that green roof technology has many advantagesthat homeowners, societies, and countries, which use it in theirconstruction, can realize. Firstly, green roof technology encouragesthe planting of flowers, trees, and herbs on roofs, which balance theheat and cold in a given area. Secondly, Gibbs et al, (2006) arguesthat introducing green roof technology in urbanized areas increasesthe amount of green space in cities, which often have minimum space.Hence, Jeddah can create green spaces, which can increase the numberof park like spaces, recreational facilities, and gardens in thecity. As such, people in dry cities can enjoy the benefits thatpeople in the wetlands enjoy using small spaces proposes (Alnaser,2008).
On the other hand, Porsche & Kohler, (2003) explain thatcountries like Germany, Brazil, and the United states are investingmore in green roof technology owing to the creation of moreaffordable green roof options. In most cases, homeowners in theseregions find it fashionable to install green roofs owing to itstherapeutic and recreational benefits. Hence, economies such as thekingdom of Saudi Arabia and Dubai are adapting to green roofing owingto marketability of housing that is constructed using greenconstruction and roofing. Fourthly, Tolderlund, et al, (2010)advocates for using green roof construction in semi arid areas likeJeddah because the city will learn how to manage and mitigate flashfloods which costs the country millions of dollars to replaceproperty, save lives, and replace destroyed structures states (Saeid,2011).
Lastly, Gibbs, et al, (2006) concludes by explaining that improvedresearch on green roof technologies promises the improvement of thedrainage system and flow of rainwater, which is one of the causes ofthe destruction of the roads and the bridges in the city. Notably,the city is one of the regions which is expanding at a fast rateowing to the high demand for housing, commercial properties, andinfrastructure. As such, green roof housing is one of theconsiderations that authorities in housing and city planning canborrow in order to prevent the occurrence of excessive floodingexperienced in arid and semi arid lands supports (Elborombaly&Molina-Prieto, 2013).
According to (Baumert, 2015), green building requires an extensiveamount of investment in terms of finances, time, and resources. Theauthor explains that green building taps into several sectors such asengineering, construction, agriculture, and architecture. Countriesin Europe and North America have the latest methods of incorporatinggreen building techniques and concepts such as green roofing intotheir urban structures. However, countries in the Middle east, subSaharan Africa, and the Arabian Gulf lack adequate knowledge,technology, expertise, in green roofing construction. Hence,introducing such technologies in regions such as Jeddah is expensiveowing to the initial costs during construction explain (Li &Yeung, 2014).
Lastly, green roofing is one of the solutions for mitigating floodsin arid areas such as Jeddah. However, adopting this system ofroofing is a process given that it takes time to incorporatemechanisms that employ the mass use of green roof technologies. Assuch, it may take as long as 20 years before the city fully benefitsfrom green roofing. This aspect may discourage some potentialinvestors to contribute to the adaptation of green building states(Synder, 2009).
1.5.7.Benefits of Applying Green Roofs in Jeddah
Properly built green roofs provide many benefits to the surroundingarea. The green roofs have been applied in many places in the worldand on each place, there is a special factors make it unique to thearea. Applying green roofs in an arid area like Jeddah requires theproper selection of material and irrigation system. This papersupports the idea of applying green roofs in governmental buildingsinstead of residential households. Because land value is very high inSaudi Arabia and in Jeddah applying green roofs in governmentalbuildings keeps the labor and financial responsibilities on themunicipality and the government and does not burden homeowners.Moreover, governmental buildings provide benefits to more people, andcover more land.
The application of green roofs in arid lands needs an irrigationsystem, which reflects on the arid weather. One of the benefits ofgreen roofs is to help the vegetation survive. The irrigation systemsuggested here harvests rainwater by storing it in tanks until thewater is needed to irrigate the vegetation (Liaw,et al., 2015). This system would help to reduce and slowrunoff water because it catches it and uses it efficiently. However,this system would not work the whole year without annual rainfall.The irrigation system will cost a lot comparing to the times it willwork.
The roof’s vegetation needs to be carefully selected, fertilizedand monitored. According to (Alnaser, 2008) green roofs do not needfertilizing because itonly needs monitoring after selecting the right plants. Thishighlights the importance of plant selection. In addition, the authorexplains the significance of avoiding fertilizer. Avoiding fertilizeris a good step because it would affect the water quality.
Behm, M. (2012) also provide the essential factors to be observedwhen constructing the rooftops to achieve effectively the objectives.Green rooftops require minimal labor and finances in small-scalehouseholds projects compared to large houses. A builder or contractorrequires advice from an architect in the case of an angle ofinclination of over 100.
Small-scale household projects are the easiest types of greenrooftops given the minimal labor and finance required. The methodinvolves the use of lightweight materials that are locally availableto the community members. The angle of inclination of over 100requires special advice from the architect. The major layers of greenrooftop include waterproof membrane, a substrate, and the plantingvegetation. A drainage system should also be placed to avoidoverloading the roof thus preventing the destruction of the buildingstructure. The advantages of the innovation are observed in itscapability to control the thermal conditions, reduction of stormwater, and the provision of biodiversity that reduces the greenhouseeffects. The vegetation is also a vital air purifies through thecarbon cycle process. Importantly, all these functions reduce watermovement and soil erosion thus controlling flood occurrences in theinstalled areas. Therefore, these processes apply to the arid areasthus protecting the population, the natural resources, and thesustainability of the environment. Proper green roofs require theselection of the right vegetation, soil, measurements, and watersupply to experience all the benefits of green roof systems (Mentenset al., 2006)
1.5.8.Implementation of Green Roofs, Costs, and Management
The main issue with the implementation of green roofs in most aridareas in the cost of the green roofs. Most of the people have claimedthat it is expensive and difficult to construct a green roof. Thecost of implementation of green roofs is expected to be significantlyhigher in arid areas due to the need to sink boreholes in order toprovide water for sustaining the plants (Baumert, 2015). With theincreasing popularity and implementation of green roofs, numerousorganizations and agencies have invested significant amountsresources on research on the cost of implementation of green roofs.The Environmental Protection Agency (2009) is one of theseorganizations. According to the report by this agency, the initialcosts of implementation of green roofs varied from a minimum of $ 10per square feet to $ 27. However, this cost depends significantlywith the materials used in the implementation of the green roof.Architectural Service Department (2006) mentions the cost ofimplementation of green roofs. According to the results, the cost ofthe implementation varied significantly with the materials used forthe implementation. Wood is least expansive compared to metal andsteel.
1.5.9. How are Green Roofs Useful in my Area of Study?
According to Saeid (2011), green roofs areuseful in environmental studies and science subjects in many ways.Firstly, green roofing techniques are essential in observingsustainable building and environmental conservation in arid areas.Countries in the Gulf region and the Red Sea do not place emphasis onenvironmental conservation. However, the increased development ofsuch countries has created the need for the incorporation ofsustainable practices in different areas of study. These ideas canare applicable in modern building, urban planning, and city expansionprojects in the affected countries argues (Porsche &Kohler, 2003).
1.5.10.Policies and Incentives Related to Green Roofs
Subyani (2011) mentions that more people inconstruction such as architects, builders, and designers are becomingaware of the benefits of green roof technology to the industry. Inaddition, the rising trend of green building is encouraginghomeowners to incorporate green roofing concepts in their buildingprojects. Furthermore, the government is becoming more involved ininitiating policies, which advocate for green roof construction andbuilding. As such, more policies concerning construction are changingthe dynamics of sustainability in Jeddah and the KSA. St Clair(2009) discusses that in 2014, Saudi Arabiaintroduced laws on environmental conservation, which touch on water,air, and noise pollution. The Presidency of Meteorology andEnvironment (PME) established these laws to target all operatingcompanies, within a period of five years to meet the environmentalstandards concerning the three forms of pollution. This is an exampleof a policy, which encourages businesses to invest in green buildingprocedures such as green roofing in order to clean the air and waterin the rural and urban areas in the region discuses Alexandri (2008).
Susilawati & Al-Surf (2011) mention that, Saudi Arabia is locatedin the Arabian Gulf, which is growing at a considerable rate.Notably, the kingdom enjoys extensive wealth owing to the presence oflarge oil deposits/reserves. However, Saudi Arabia is still adeveloping country, which faces issues similar to other countries inthis position. The countries rate of urbanization is high because ofthe extensive rate of development experienced in the past five years.Saeid (2011) states that the main challenges in terms of urbanizationare the expansion of new buildings for commercial and housingpurposes. Hence, the government continues to introduce new incentivessuch as subsidized prices for sustainable building materials,greeneries & plants. In addition, the government promotes membersof the workforce in the construction industry by addressing some oftheir challenges such as management and production costs mentionsArchitectural Services Department (2006). Currently, import andexport laws support builders by subsidizing prices of byproductsneeded for green roofing. More than half of the people in the kingdomdo not understand green proofing technology. However, introducing newpolicies and incentives is changing this dynamic on a daily basis(Thompson &Sorvig, 2008).
1.5.11.Analysis of Research, which Indicates the Success of Green Roofs inArid Regions
According to Porsche & Kohler, (2003), thesuccess of green roofs in arid regions is evident in cities likeJeddah, which is adapting to modern methods of building, housing, andurban planning. As such, research, which indicates the success ofgreen roofing, continues to increase. In the past, research focusedon western countries in Europe and North America, which lead indeveloping, conceptualizing, and practicing green building. Some ofthe countries, which practice green roofing considerably, areGermany, the United States, and Canada. These techniques are shiftingto countries in Asia such as China, Japan, and Singapore concludesSubyani (2011).
Saeid (2011) mentions that, current research isfocusing on arid areas, which are facing massive expansion in thecities, growth of infrastructure, significant climatic change, andgeopolitical strength. More cities in arid countries like Abu Dhabi,Jeddah, and Riyadh are adopting green proofing in theirestablishments. Moreover, government buildings form 25% of thebuildings, which are using green roofing as one of the methods ofenvironmental sustainability. Research further indicates that ifgovernments in such areas take the initiative to invest in greenroofing techniques in their buildings, the success rate of thismethod could double in two years explain Snodgrass& McIntyre (2010).
Morecountries, which share the same terrain as that of Saudi Arabia, areinvesting in green roofing. For example, the United Arab Emirates istaking initiative to invest in green technology and construction inorder to meet the expectations of its citizens, investors, andvisitors. One of the member states of the UAE is Dubai. The countryhas experienced social cultural, economic, and political growth inthe last 20 years because of the introduction of new strategicalliances, laws, and policies, which appeal to overall development.With the rise of development, the country realized the vitality ofenhancing its environmental growth in order to complement otheraspects of life (Edmund et al.,2010).
The countryhas terrain and climatic conditions similar to that of the city ofJeddah. Hence, the city stands to gain by following Dubai’sdecision to incorporate green roofing in their private and commercialbuildings. Notably, leading institutions and the government spearheadmost of the policies in the country. In fact, this is one of thereasons for the increased awareness of green building in the countryas a whole (Liaw, et al., 2015).Like Jeddah, over the years, Dubai has experienced the challengesthat come with flash floods. For example, flash floods areresponsible for destruction of both human lives and property. Inaddition, runoffs are responsible or increased cost of maintenance inthe country. Hence, the incorporation of green roofs gets credit forreducing the disadvantages of runoffs in the country. If Jeddah takesthe same initiative, the city will improve its urban projects, whichrequire extensive investments and expansion in the short and longterm (Razzaghmanesh et al.,2014).
Other aridregions, which show success of green roofs, are Australia, subSaharan Africa, and desert regions in northern America. These placeshave either arid or semi arid lands which, make them experience thesame challenges like other arid places. States in the United Statessuch as Nevada are investing in green roofing to reduce on thenegative effects of the harsh weather (Mohammed &Alok, 2015).For example, green roofs cool the air and reduce the rate ofpollution brought about by sandy and dusty lands. Green roofs useemerging technology, which provides plants and grass, which canwithstand the harsh terrain. As such, more locations, which have dryland, can balance their climatic conditions while reducing thenegative effects of unexpected runoffs (Axter,2008).
1.5.12. What are the Gaps in Research that Focuses on Green Roofing?
Gibbs et al., (2006) states that gaps inliterature with regard to green roofing reveal that, majority ofpeople in both developed and developing countries do not use greenroofing when building. Studies often misinterpret most of theinformation on green roof building with the intention of influencinga reader’s opinion on sustainable methods in the current society.Susilawati1 & Al-Surf (2011) further discusses that thegaps reveal that private builders support green roofing compared togovernment and government partners. While governments often take theinitiative to introduce and support green building projects, they donot form the majority percentage of investors in an economy conclude(Thompson& Sorvig, 2008).
St Clair (2009) argues that literature on greenroofing still focuses on regions with wetlands, heavy rainfall,winter, and tropical climate. Research shows that arid places areenhancing their knowledge of green roofing on an annual basis.However, less than 1% of Jeddah’s population uses green rooftechniques during building. One of the reasons for this culture isthat the cities lack the required space needed for green roofing.Hence, the government can use its large land reserves to implementgreen roofing in order to increase the percentage of green roofing inthe entire region. The latest trends in green roofing are focusing onbuilding, sustainable roofing in small spaces. This is because somecities do not have the needed space for new constructions. Citiessuch as Jeddah can benefit from green roofs, which can mitigatefloods that are notorious for damaging the drainage system summarizesGetter & Rowe (2008).
The research gap not only identifies topics inliterature, which receive little attention, it also guides readers onthe new trends in different topics. Currently, more people are awareof the benefits of green roofing and their role in flood mitigation.Hence, if more literature provides studies of the benefits of greenroofs in dry regions like Jeddah, then more cities experiencing theseissues in places like the Middle East and sub Saharan Africa willadopt such methods for environmental sustainability explains(Banting, et al, 2005).
1.5.13Purpose and Objectives
The purpose of this research is to determinethe benefits of green roofs in arid areas. The focus of this study isJeddah, which is located in Saudi Arabia. This research is importantbecause it creates awareness of the essentiality of investing ingreen roof technology. The paper advocates for green roofs ongovernment buildings in order to increase the percentage of greenroofs from 1% to 10%. More research on green roofs in arid areas willincrease the percentage in the future. The objective is to createawareness of using green roofs for flood mitigation. The analysis ofthe latest trends in green roof technology will enhancesustainability in arid cities such as Jeddah. Green roofingtechnology is predominant in first world countries like the UnitedStates, Germany, and the UK. In the past years, more countries acrossthe globe such as South Africa, Saudi Arabia, and Brazil have adoptedgreen building as one of the methods of environmental sustainability.Green roof technology is one of the methods in green building, whichimproves the eco system (Carter &Fowler, 2008).
The proposal is vital in explaining how greenroof technology has benefited different countries with differentclimatic conditions. However, the paper places emphasis on aridregions and deserts which over the years have been experiencing flashfloods. Research shows that green roofs do not only apply in wetlandsbut are also effective in dry lands. Therefore, desert regions suchas Jeddah can transfer this technology to its city with the hope ofmitigating floods, which are becoming a rising concern in the region(Carter & Fowler, 2008).
Chapter2: approaches and Methods2.1.Research Methodology
The research uses both quantitative andqualitative research to defend the thesis and prove the hypothesis.The paper focuses on qualitative research, which looks at themotivations and opinions of concepts and theories developed in thefield of green building as a whole. In addition, the paper derivesinformation through studying and analyzing previously writtenliterature on the topic at hand. Hence, the paper reviews varioustopics in green roofing to prove the hypothesis (Mohammed &Alok, 2015). The paper offers a literaturereview, which uses primary and secondary sources to investigatedifferent topics concerning green roofs as a means of floodmitigation in arid areas. The focus of this research is on aridregions such as Jeddah, which require government intervention withreference to urban planning (Thompson& Sorvig, 2008).
Currently,there is not much literature, which focuses on green roofing on aridlands. However, more authors are shifting the direction of theirresearch to this topic. The proposal is essential in creating aplatform for encouraging green roofing in arid places. One of thereasons for the increased promotion of green roofing technology inarid places is the rising rate of floods in desert regions(Susilawati & Al-Surf, 2011).If more literature addresses the issues that such cities experienceafter the occurrence of flash floods and runoffs, the level ofawareness will increase. The research focuses on previously writtenliterature to understand the history of green food technology and itsadaptation in different locations. Hence, future research shouldaddress the role of the government in enhancing green roof technologyin the public and private sectors (Axter,2008).
Thefindings reveal many benefits that result from using green rooftechnology in building. The main benefit that applies to the thesisis the notion that green roofs mitigate floods in arid areas. Apartfrom this, many environmental advantages come with using green roofs.Hence, arid regions like Jeddah can enjoy cleaner air, managerunoffs, mitigate floods, and experience cooler temperatures. Jeddahis one of the cities in Saudi Arabia that is facing major expansionowing to increased urbanization (Architectural ServicesDepartment, 2006). The research gap shows thatonly 1% of roofs in the city have green roofs. While research ofgreen roofs in arid areas has increased, authorities need to placemore effort in creating awareness of the benefits of green roofingtechniques. One of the ways on enhancing green roof construction isby using government land that contains large spaces and buildingessential for green roof building. With that said, present literatureshould focus on investigating the benefits of green roofing in aridlands (Snodgrass& McIntyre, 2010).
Greenroofing dates back to ancient times whereby establishments plantedgreeneries, plants, and vegetation on top of roofs and ceilings.Green roofs are predominant in tropical places, regions of highrainfall, and cold places. This is because, the climatic conditionsin such locations are favorable for the growth of different kinds ofplants. Over the years, green roofing methods have evolved toaccommodate the changes in the social and global environment. Suchstructures are effective in large spaces, well-planned rooms, and onstrong buildings. Hence, the lack of proper administration can resultin the creation of an infective roofing system, which does not meetthe proper functions. Properly implemented green roofs improve themitigation of floods, extensive runoffs, and erosion. In addition,green roofs manage climate conditions, reduce pollution and serve asrecreational spaces. Currently, research is shifting from buildinggreen roofs from wetlands and semi arid areas to dry regions. This isbecause, barren land can now support the growth of plants because ofstronger plant species and soil. As such, cities like Jeddah can nowmitigate flash floods, which are continuously interfering with theurban structures in the location. Despite the increased awareness ofgreen roof technology, the government needs to spearhead this programby using government structures for green roof construction. This willfurther reduce the negative effects of floods experienced in thecities in the past ten years
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