The Scientific Method

TheScientific Method

TheScientific Method

Thescientific method is a collection of mechanisms that are used toinvestigate phenomena, acquire fresh knowledge, or modify andintegrate previous ideas. For a method to be scientific, it must befounded on measurable or empirical evidence subject to particularcognitive principles. According to the Oxford Dictionary, thescientific method is a process that comprises systematic observation,experiment, and measurement. It also involves the formulation,testing, and analysis as well as modification of the hypothesis. Thegeneral phases of a scientific method involve:

  • Asking a query

  • Conducting a background research

  • Constructing a hypothesis

  • Conducting experiments to test the hypothesis

  • Performing an analysis of the data to arrive at particular conclusions

  • Communicating/ sharing the results

Thescientific method begins with observation and queries. In this phase,one observes and inquires why things are happening in that manner.Typical questions include how, when, which, where, why, who, andwhat? An individual then conducts a background research to ascertainsome facts before constructing an appropriate hypothesis. Tests arethen performed on the theory to prove them before arriving atparticular conclusions. Once the theory is proven, it can be sharedwith others. A well-formulated method should convince otherscientists or provide room for better findings. It should also be animprovement of the current studies.

Climatechange has a big impact on our daily lives. The effects are quitevast from air and water quality to varying temperatures or evenunpredictable weather patterns. Therefore, the scientific method canassist in describing the cause of climate change and how it can bereduced. The big query is, do human beings contribute to the effectsof climate change? In other words, what is the role of people in thechanging aspects of the climate?


Humanactivities like the combustion of fossil fuels is one of the leadingcauses of climate change. If industrial effluents are increased, thenthe greenhouse gas concentration rise, thereby heightening theeffects of climate change. The only way of reducing climate change isthrough utilization of clean energy sources. For instance, replacinggasoline-driven automobiles with electric-driven ones to limit usageof fossil fuels.

Howto Test the Effects of Greenhouse Gasses

Thetest will utilize – plastic bottles, water, and soil. It willinvolve measuring temperature variations and the impacts of soilhumidity.


Insidea greenhouse, light from the sun rays can easily penetrate plastic orglass walls. However, heat does not. Therefore, the greenhouse effectis a physical process in which atmospheric gasses permit light topenetrate, but absorb the infrared emissions from the surface of theearth. In that regard, the atmosphere depicts a heat-trappingblanket. As it has been scientifically proven, life on earth could beimpossible minus the warming of the greenhouse effect. Therefore,global warming, which is an element of climate change is theconsiderable rise in the earth’s mean temperatures. The debate onwhether human activities are the primary causes of the risingtemperatures has been ongoing among scientists and other scholars [ CITATION Olu14 l 1033 ].The materials to be used in this experiment include clear plasticand liter bottles, plastic wrap to conceal the greenhouses, stringsto hold the plastics, thermometers to measure the temperatures, icecubes, soil, plastic rulers, light source, and water.

Activityand Explanation

Thebottles in this experiment depict greenhouses. The temperaturesreflect the radiative features and an efficient insulating capabilityof the plastic cover that shelters the bottles at the top. It is asimple technique showing the greenhouse effect and is equivalent tothe capability of the atmosphere to trap heat. As the energy from thesun hits the earth’s atmosphere, the denser portions of the airreflect some of it. The thicker parts include cloud tops, oceans, icecaps, and particulate matter. The residual energy penetrates thegreenhouse gasses to be absorbed by the earth’s surface i.e. waterand land. The face of the earth then releases some of the energy inthe form of infrared radiations. As the infrared emissions get intocontact with the greenhouse gasses, they are re-absorbed and thenre-radiated.

Theexperiment is expected to show that increased greenhouse gassescorrelate to excessive temperatures. If the tests show thattemperatures are higher in the area having a larger concentration ofgreenhouse gasses particularly C02, then it would be successful. Anyconflicting results would portray the experiment as a failure. Carbondioxide is the most harmful gas, and its source is also well-known.If indeed the above test proves that greenhouse gasses areresponsible for the heightened temperature levels, then more testswould be conducted near industries. Industrial effluents constituteof higher percentages of carbon dioxide.

Furtherexperiments can be done based on the photosynthetic effect. It hasbeen scientifically proven that plants take in carbon dioxide andrelease oxygen. On the other hand, humans and animals breathe inoxygen and release carbon dioxide. This is the standard ecologicalcycle that must be balanced to ensure all living organisms live inharmony. Disturbance of the normal ecological system leads to climatechange, particularly global warming. Therefore, human activities suchas deforestation interfere with the normal photosynthesis cycle,leaving the carbon dioxide concentrations in the high atmosphere. Thehigh levels increase the greenhouse effect. This can be tested tostamp claim that human activities are a major contributor to globalwarming.

Humanactivities could also be monitored across the water bodies. Thequality of water near industries is worse than the ones situated farfrom them. Some industries do not treat the effluents beforereleasing them to the water bodies. As research has continuouslyproven, the fish kill events are continually on the rise. Thehypothesis can, therefore, be affirmed by taking water samples nearindustries. The pH concentrations and other water properties will becompared to samples that are not contaminated. It is anticipated thatcontaminated water leads to disturbance of aquatic life. Furthermore,the notion that human activities are the predominant cause of poorwater quality will be affirmed [ CITATION Olu14 l 1033 ].


Researchhas consistently shown that solar energy amounts have remainednatural over the years hence cannot be accredited to the changingclimate changes. It has also been suggested that roughly 80% ofcarbon dioxide emanating from human activities are due to fossilfuels. Another 20% is due to deforestation among other relatedagricultural activities. However, some industries contend with thisnotion. They believe that fossil fuels have limited impact on theatmosphere [CITATION Placeholder1 l 1033 ].This experiment tries to prove that high levels of greenhouse gasseslead to heightened temperatures. It also links the high greenhouselevels to human activities that range from industrial effluents toagricultural activities and deforestation.


NOAA. (2016). Global Climate Change Indicators. Retrieved from Global Climate Change Indicators:

Olufemi Adedeji, O. R. (2014). Global Climate Change. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protectio, 114-122.