EFFECTS OF WAR AND PEACE ON FOREIGN AID 1
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War is a state of rivalry between differentnations on the other hand, peace is the cessation of violence. Theabove factors play an imperative role in foreign aid in any country.If a country is prone to violence and war, it is a major turn-off forforeign aid and the investors (Lis, 2014). My country of interest isSomalia.
According to Adam-Bradford (2014), war and peaceimpact on foreign aid with different proportions. For instance, orderattracts numerous sources of foreign aid. There is economicprosperity in times of peace and good health conditions among thecitizens. There had been a growing tourism sector which was a majorboost to the Somalia economy. Trade was also at its best especiallyalong the vast coastline where ships from Asia and India docked(Adam-Bradford, 2014).The absence of peace has a directly inverse effect such asdeterioration in foreign aid.
Somalia is a country with a potential to developand utilize its resources such as oil to be among one of the leadingeconomies in Africa (Shortland,Christopoulou & Makatsoris, 2013).According to Adam-Bradford (2014) the statepossesses a coastline that can promote its development in both tradeand tourism sector, but the effects of civil war in the country haveled to a couple of drawbacks. It led to the destruction of thecountry’s foreign relationships policy. According to Lis(2014), any foreigners were killed in the country,and illegal activities such as piracy overtook the functions of thecoastline. This violence scared off a lot of foreigners forcing themto withdraw from the nation. Peace would have encouraged continuedsupport from the developed countries such as the United States toassist them in exploiting their resources. Foreign aid was cut shortby donor agencies such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) dueto the prevalence of these conflicts in the country. Businessactivities are at a standstill, and many citizens live in fear sinceterror reigns the day in Somalia.
Somalia was progressing before the start of civilwar. Peace in any country simplifies the effort to source out foreignaid and other types of humanitarian aid to help them boost theireconomy (Ahmad, 2012). They could access many donors such as theWorld Bank and the world health organization. According to Martinez(2011), peace makes iteasy for the humanitarian groups such as the Red Cross andnon-governmental organizations to access the needy people withoutrisking their lives. The warfare in Somalia led to insecurity andthus drove out many humanitarian groups and sources of foreign aid.The war destroyed their industrial capacity and the country’ssectoral development dragging the nation back to its infancy stage indevelopment.
Prevalence of peace in a country increases thewillingness of donors to advance grants (Lis, 2014). Other forms offoreign aid may come in the form of foreign direct investments insectors such as infrastructure and active production of goods andservices (Martinez2011). Foreign aid is crucial in boostingthe standards of living of the citizens of an undeveloped country.Investors would only fish out their money in places where they feelsecure and would not lead to loss as their property is destroyed inthe occurrence of war. The Somalia war has been waged for over adecade now killing their hopes of obtaining potential investors.Instead, the investors turned their attention to other neighboringcountries such as Kenya.
The ongoing wars in the nation have driven outmany investors thus burying down Somalia’s economy. The investors,especially from the United States and Israel, who offered support andvarious services in the country, were forced to pack up in the adventof these wars (Martinez, 2011). Thestate of lawlessness in the nation caused such a severe blow toSomalia’s economy as the citizens could no longer obtain the goodsand necessities they needed. The war made the life in the countryunbearable, and many resulted to seeking refuge in the neighboringcountries. According to Martinez (2011),some who did not run away were forcefullyabsorbed in the looming militia groups.
There were dire effects of the war such as massivedeaths of both the civilian and the peacekeeping forces throughoutthe country. According to Ahmad (2012),the conflict barricaded the access to basic needs such as food andwater to the citizens. Even thehumanitarian organizations could not access the needy people due tosecurity issues. The citizens are always on the run due to theexistence of wars, and this makes it difficult for foreign donoragencies to reach out to civilians within the country.
Most of the citizens are in hideouts escaping thewrath of the merciless militia who go on a killing spree mission inthe country (Martinez, 2011).According to him, many people died out of starvation because theycould not access any basic needs to facilitate their survival. Theuse of heavy artillery in the war has led to massive destruction ofproperty as well as large scale deaths in the country(Adam-Bradford, 2014).Those who survived ended up with different disabilities and weak andliving in constant fear for their lives.
There is a major health problem in the country.Previously, health interventions were facilitated by the localleadership. Today the nation’s administration is using the foreignaid to provide health care for women and children through thedevelopment of well-resourced health strategies (Martinez, 2011). There have been contestable death rates in the past as a result ofpoor or not at all health services in the state. Another area actedupon is the provision of food relief to the starving citizens.Another significant action is the enhancement of security in thecountry through the use of foreign aid resources such as professionalsecurity personnel, equipment, and finances. Reinstating safety inthe country has enhanced increasing trade both internally andexternally. The high-security level is a good attractive feature tothe investors.
According to Shortland& Makatsori (2013), theextension of foreign aid has not played a significant role inSomalia. Due to its long history of war and violence, the country’spicture is still painted with blood and destruction. This image doesnot serve well especially in cases where the country aims atattracting foreign investors. The state of peace has not been fullyrestored in the country, though there are some aspects ofimprovements in the condition of the nation over the past few years.The use of foreign aid would lead to the slow and systematic healingof the wounds inflicted on the country. A lot is yet to be done toimprove the conditions of living of the citizens. The country needsmore sources of foreign aid to accomplish this objective.
It is evident that war and peace have an impact onforeign aid, the issues witnessed in Somalia are a revelation on howwar can lead to a decline in economic as well a social status of agiven country. War leads to the shutting out of any foreign aid acountry can get. The emergence of war in Somalia destroyed everythingincluding the system of government giving way to the rise of militiagroups. Apparently, peace encourages the existence and sustenance offoreign donor but, war drives it away.
Adam-Bradford, A. (2014). War Crimes: How Warlords, Politicians,Foreign Governments And Aid Agencies Conspired To Create A FailedState In Somalia, R. Warah. AuthorHouse, Bloomington, Indiana, USA,2014. ISBN 978-1-4969-8281-0, Â£12 (paperback), xii + 173. LandDegrad. Develop, 27(4), 1309-1310. doi:10.1002/ldr.2312
Ahmad, A. (2012). Agenda for Peace or Budget for War?:Evaluating the Economic Impact of International Intervention inSomalia.International Journal: Canada`s Journal of Global PolicyAnalysis, 67(2), 313-331.doi:10.1177/002070201206700203
Lis, P. (2014). Terrorism, Armed Conflict and Foreign Aid. PeaceEconomics, Peace Science and Public Policy, 20(4).doi:10.1515/peps-2014-0033
Martinez, M. (2011). Explaining Peace Duration through ForeignAid and Civil War Outcome. The Eagle Feather.doi:10.12794/tef.2011.44
Shortland, A., Christopoulou, K., & Makatsoris, C.(2013). War and famine, peace and light? The economic dynamics ofconflict in Somalia 1993-2009.Journal of Peace Research,50(5), 545-561. doi:10.1177/0022343313492991