TaxonomicClassification of Marine Organisms
Classificationis an essential instrument utilized by scientists in displaying howanimals are correlated with each other as well as to categorizeorganisms by their traits. Profoundly, taxonomy involves classifyingorganisms into a sequence of organized groups namely: species, genus,family, order, class, phylum, and kingdom these categories haveremained in common usage since the 18thcentury(Mora et al.).The largest collection is the domain, which is further divided intothree domains namely, Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria. Every singleliving organism is categorized into one of the three domains. DomainBacteria comprises of organisms that are unicellular prokaryotes.Organisms in domain Archaea are characterized with unicellularprokaryotes, and they are also exceptional since they survive inextreme environments. The ones found in hot springs are calledthermophiles and those in salty conditions are named halophiles. Eventhough Archaea and bacteria are divided into distinct domains, theyshare some characteristics they both reproduce through asexualreproduction and are unicellular prokaryotes. However, severalArchaea are heterotrophs while others are autotrophs. Domain Eukaryaconsists of all eukaryotes this dominion consists of diversecollections of organisms, which are made up of eukaryotic cells.Features such as structure, behavior, and mode of procreation furthercategorize organisms into smaller groups entitled Kingdoms. Also,organisms can be classified by means in which they acquire food forinstance, there is dissimilarity between animals and plants, plantsgenerate their own food and are termed as autotrophs, whereas animalsare recognized as heterotrophs for they must consume other organisms.The two major reproductive mode of reproduction are as well used toclassify organism, to be precise, sexual and asexual reproduction. Abranch of the system of grouping is typically used to classifyorganisms.
Particularly,marine organisms are also classified into every single kingdom theyare characterized by Animals, Plants, Bacteria, Fungi, Protozoans,and Chromists. Animals are usually multi-cellular and enormous theydepend on other organisms for food thus they are heterotrophic. Inaquatic surroundings, animals consist of whales, jellyfish, seastars, sponges, fish, and sea spiders(Sinclair 69).Plants are autotrophic as well as multi-cellular they use sunlightto produce food through a process known as photosynthesis. Plants areprevalent in freshwater and on terrestrial, but then again, severalkinds flourish in marine surroundings, for instance, mangroves aswell as eel grass. Before seaweeds were classified as Chromists, theywere formerly classed as plants. Fungi count on breaking downbiological materials for food since they are incapable of generatingtheir own, hence being very few in the aquatic environment. Theprimary cause that led to the classification of chromists differentfrom plants is their ability to photosynthesize using a dissimilarsort of chlorophyll. Chromists vary from minor creatures, forexample, diatoms. Protozoans, which are bigger than bacteria, aresingle-celled creatures. Remarkably, the protozoan kingdom is wellcharacterized in the aquatic environment because they vary in bothautotrophic and heterotrophic. Bacteria procreate by splitting intotwo and are also single-celled creatures. Essentially, bacteria playa critical role in bionetwork for they break down biological materialso as to create nutrients obtainable for phytoplankton. Accordingly,this fact enables bacteria to subsist in the marine environs.
Animalsin the marine environment can either be divided into vertebrates andinvertebrates. Vertebrates consist of dolphins and fish whereasinvertebrates are sea star and crabs. Since marine animals areheterotrophic, they are characterized by unusual body structure. Forinstance, sea star has the ability to outspread its stomach outer itsbody so as to ingest its prey, for example, mussels. Likewise,Cockles have drain-off like structures that assists them in filteringorganic components as well as phytoplankton adjourned in the marine.Bryozoans combine into colonies to make it at ease for capturing foodwhile proceeding to float. Similarly, all animals in the ocean havethe ability to move however, there are some, which are difficult tospot, that only move within their larval stage such animals getpermanently fixed to a surface, such as, barnacles (Moraet al.).Marine mammals have a backbone, and they are warm-blooded. Almost allbodies of marine animals are made up of multiple cells that arearranged into tissues with the purpose of carrying out differentfunctions this fact makes them different from other organisms forexample bacteria, which are made up of a single cell. Even though allmarine animals reproduce through sexual reproduction, several such assea star can produce through splitting themselves into two thisprocess is known as fission and it falls under asexual reproduction.
Apparently,it can be difficult to clarify marine organisms into domains becauseof their physical appearance. For instance, a collection of bryozoanscan at times appear to resemble a plant. Nevertheless, afterobserving carefully, one will perceive that they actually made ofdistinct miniature creatures known as Zooids(Woese and George 5089).A colony of bryozoans bears a resemblance to tiny worms with a nosethat has antennae around the exterior. The aquatic environment alsoconsists of Kingdom Fungi, which includes organisms such as molds andmushrooms. The majority of fungi procreate by both sexual and asexualreproduction, and they are as well multicellular. Despite the factthat fungi acquire food through a unique way, they are allheterotrophs they ingest nutrients from the environment. A mold is agood example of fungi that discharge chemicals in order to breakdownbread into slighter substances, so as to absorb it at ease asnutrients this feature makes Fungi dissimilar from animals. MarineFungi are based on the land, and they are very few for exampleyeast, and mold. The majority are decomposers for they lackphotosynthetic pigments. Fungi obtain food through breaking down deadorganic materials. When two of Fungi live together throughinterdependence with cyanobacteria, they form Lichens each one ofthem offers the other nutrients it requires for survival. Lichenholds chlorophytes because of the blue-green algae, which is rich inmolecules from photosynthesis. Lichens have the ability to dissolvesurface they are attached to because they are unicellular organisms.Equally, Fungi can also dissolve surfaces for it contains nutrientsthat can yield fiber capable of attaching to rocks. Fungi areecological indicators since their growth is affected by airpollution.
KingdomProtista has been a difficult group to classify. Compared toeukaryotes, organisms in Kingdom Protista are somewhat structured.Seemingly, some of the organisms are multicellular while others areunicellular(Jones et al.187). Protists vary with classification because some protists looklike plants autotrophs while others are heterotrophs, resemblinganimals. On the other hand, some protists have chlorophyll forphotosynthesis, for example, green algae thus making them comparableto plants. However, all protists absorb nutrients from theirenvironment, as well as they all, contain a nucleus, but then again,they have a simple structure hence cannot be eligible as animals orplants.
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Jones,E. B. G., et al. "Classification of marine Ascomycota,anamorphic taxa, and Basidiomycota." FungalDiversity 35.1(2009): 187.
Mora,Camilo et al. "How many species are there on Earth and in theocean?." PLoSBiol 9.8(2011): e1001127.
Sinclair,Alex. "National Marine Animal Laboratory Education WebSite." SchoolLibrary Journal 50.11(2004): 69. ProQuest. Web.26 July 2016.
Woese,Carl R., and George E. Fox. "Phylogenetic structure of theprokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms." Proceedingsof the National Academy of Sciences 74.11(1977): 5088-5090.