StandardizedAssessment of Intelligence and Development
Thefirst standardized tests were developed to assess individual’sintelligence and cognitive development. Research the evolution fromStafford, Binet and later assessment pioneers for the specificassessment of intelligence and development.
Thefirst attempt to develop a true intelligence test was made by aFrench psychologist known as Alfred Binet. This was in response tothe need to come up with a test that could help to identify learnersin French public schools who were vulnerable to failing (Homack &Reynolds, 2007). Binet’s effort led to invention of the Binet-Simontest. This type of intelligence test contained various items thatreflected the kind of skills and knowledge which a school child of acertain age was supposed to have.
Duringthe First World War, Psychologists Robert Yerkes and Lewis Termincame up with Army Alpha and Beta tests. Such tests were used todetermine the kind of training which was necessary for new recruitsin the United States army (Homack & Reynolds, 2007). The Betatest focused on non-verbal abilities of the recruits while the alphatest tended to emphasize on verbal capabilities. After the end of theSecond World, the Binet-Simon’s intelligence test was translatedinto English and adapted to the American school’s curriculum andculture by Lewis Termin (Homack & Reynolds, 2007). The test cameto be known as the Stanford-Binet intelligence test.
Beingunhappy with the Stanford-Binet test’s focus on verbalcapabilities, psychologist David Wechsler developed his own tests. Hecalled them performance tasks since they did not put much emphasis onverbal skills (Mackintosh, 2011). Wechsler’s tests opened the wayfor the emergence of standardized intelligence tests. Unlike theinitial tests, these intelligence tests tend to focus on the I.Q.scores of students (Mackintosh, 2011). Standardized intelligencetests make use of the deviation method, mean scores, and percentileranks in measuring the intelligence of learners. This explains whystudent’s results matter a lot in such kind of tests.
Homack,S. R. & Reynolds, C. R. (2007). Essentialsof assessment with brief intelligence tests.Hoboken, N.J: J. Wiley & Sons.
Mackintosh,N. J. (2011). IQand human intelligence.Oxford: Oxford University Press.