SMOKING TRENDS IN USA 4
Smoking is a risk factor for many of the lifestyle diseasesespecially lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is aproblem that has existed in my neighborhood at St. George, StatenIsland for many years. Lifestyle diseases account for the highestmortality rate in my area. In fact, many succumb to heart failuresecondary to myocardial infarctions, strokes and lung, oral andesophageal cancers. The major risk factor is attributed to thesmoking trends with people smoking more than 30 pack years in theirlifetime.
The habit starts from a tender age of 14 with gender predilection andcurrently the Island’s smokers stand at 16.6%, the highestpercentage in New York City’s boroughs (NYC Health, 2016). Comparedto other boroughs and the country at large, the smoking trends havebeen reducing tremendously in the last 10 years, with New Yorkreduction rate at 35% from 2002 (NYC Health, 2016).
The trends in smoking have been on the decline in industrializedcountries including Europe, North America and pacific regions(Greenhalgh, Bayly & Winstanley, 2015). Based on the health careperformance in terms of effectiveness, health outcomes and quality,the USA has been lagging behind the other countries (Davis et al.,2014). USA lacks a universal coverage as compared to the otherdeveloped countries with health expenditure per capita stand at$8,508 as compared to other countries like Australia, UK, France,Canada, Germany and the Netherlands (Davis et al, 2014).
This pushes people from accessing health care due to its expensivenature. Such smoking tendencies could be reduced if the healthcarecarried out nationwide campaigns to promote good health with minimalsmoking, good diet and regular physical exercise (Davis et al, 2014).The USA also ranks last in matters of equity and healthy lives withmany smokers falling in low and middle income brackets (Davis et al,2014). With continued government funding to improve both preventiveand curative medical services and to improve accessibility andaffordability, smoking trends in the country can be reducedtremendously.
Greenhalgh, EM, Bayly, M, & Winstanley. (2015). MH. 1.13International comparisons of prevalence of smoking. In Scollo,MM and Winstanley, MH [editors]. Tobacco in Australia: Facts andissues. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria. Retrieved from: http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-1-prevalence/1-13-international- comparisons-of-prevalence-of-sm
Davis, K., Stremikis, K., Squires, D., & Schoen, C. (2014).Mirror, mirror on the wall. How the performance of the US Healthcare system compares internationally. New York: Common WealthFund.
NYC Health. (2016). New York City Community Health Profiles.Retrieved from: https://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/data/data-publications/profiles.page