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Wequantify ourselves based on what we value as real. To fully graspwhat reality is, we examine the realm of metaphysics. This branch ofphilosophy deals with the fundamentals of our world. This paper seeksto analyze Manuel Velasquez’swriting so as to comment on what makes up reality.

InChapter 3 of Manuel’s book on philosophy, philosophers like Hobbes,a materialist, argue that physical objects are real. For Hobbes,reality is matter, which is measurable. His notion significantlydiffers with Berkeley’s position. He was an idealist and arguedthat reality is non-matter made up of thoughts, the mind, and thespirit. He states that because all we perceive are our thoughts, thenour ideas and the mind are real.

Thepragmatists like Pierce, Dewey, and James rejected all assumptionthat claim reality is absolute. They put forward the theory thatreality is pluralistic in nature. Positivists discredit allmetaphysicists and allege that their statements about reality arepurely meaningless emotions and not facts.

Thewords of positivists did not stop other metaphysicists from trying tounderstand reality. Alterealists suggest that language is part ofreality, and different human realities are the result of beliefs,perceptions, thoughts, and language.

Metaphysicistsput forward various ideas. By consolidating these views, we findcommon concepts and edge close to establishing what makes up reality.All the mentioned schools of thought agree that reality is in anorder which our reasoning self can detect. We are all part of thatorder. When we know ourselves, we get to understand partly thatorder, our role in it and reality. In conclusion, if we are tounderstand reality, we must first begin by understanding ourselves.