Part One:Assessment, Evaluation, and Outcome Measurement

a. Assessment isa tool used to collect information that is useful in developing anoccupational profile, understanding a person`s needs, and determiningthe most suitable therapeutic interventions (Laver-Fawcett, 2013). Onthe other hand, evaluation refers to the process of obtaining data toshow the extent to which an intervention has attained the plannedoutcomes for a patient (Laver-Fawcett, 2013). Both assessment andevaluation are necessary since they focus on treatment plans andprocedures that would suffice for particular clients.

b. A standardized test refers to a systematic procedure used inobserving a person`s behavior or acquiring and grading information ona numerical scale or in fixed categories (Laver-Fawcett, 2013).Standardized tests are needed for OT practice since they help tocollect verifiable, factual, and objective data about a procedure ora client.

c. Validityrefers to the justifiability of using an individual’s test scoresto make judgments on functioning. On the other hand, reliabilityconcerns the ability of a test to yield stable results over time andunder different circumstances (Laver-Fawcett, 2013). Reliability andvalidity are both important since they help an occupational therapistto draw accurate conclusions and make sound decisions based on anindividual’s test results. The two measures are also vital sincethey enable a therapist to build a rapport with clients.

d. Inter-raterreliability is especially crucial when administering standardizedtests to mental health patients. This is because such reliabilityguarantees that any changes in the individual could not be attributedto differences between staff members (Laver-Fawcett, 2013).

e. Face validityis particularly significant when issuing standardized tests to mentalhealth patients. This is because it creates a rapport between theclient and the therapist (Laver-Fawcett, 2013). It also reduces testanxiety and enhances the reliability of obtained information.

Part Two: TheUse of Psychosocial Methods &amp Interpersonal Strategies

a. Athena mightbe referred for OT services since she had co-occurring addictive andbipolar disorders. Notably, she would customarily make vicious andsarcastic remarks to well-intentioned individuals (Cara &ampStephenson, 2013). Her destructive behavior had hindered heroccupational performance since she would have to leave jobs andterminate friendships. Jocelyn should be referred for occupationaltherapy since she exhibited anxiety and depression owing to isolationand loneliness (Cara &amp Stephenson, 2013). Furthermore, a conflictwith her only friend had made her believe that she was unlovable. Onthe other hand, Sylvia may be referred for OT services since she hadborderline personality disorder and major depression that explainedher suicide attempts (Cara &amp Stephenson, 2013). Moreover, shemanifested signs of post-traumatic stress disorder having lived inseveral foster homes. She had also experienced physical abuse due toher mother’s loss of control. Besides, occupational therapy wouldhelp her to cultivate loving relationships.

b. In preparingto evaluate Jocelyn, an OT practitioner would find it useful to learnthe diagnosis that was made by a qualified professional. Jocelynexperienced anxiety and depression due to several factors. She had afriend that solely contributed to her notion of being lovable.Knowing such a diagnosis would help an occupational therapist to bepersistent in attempting to reach Jocelyn when she becameunresponsive (Cara &amp Stephenson, 2013). It also helps the OTpractitioner to highlight the importance of participating in groupactivities. Subsequently, the client can alleviate her sadness andloneliness by associating with a helpful group. The information inthe case study could be used for evaluation planning for the patient.In this regard, the occupational therapist could collect informationfrom Jocelyn at designated periods to evaluate the progress made.Additionally, the OT practitioner would be able to plan forappropriate intervention using the outpatient writing group as asource of comfort.


Laver-Fawcett, A. (2013). Assessment, evaluation, and outcomemeasurement. In Psychosocial Occupational Therapy: An EvolvingPractice (3rd ed., pp.600-642). Clifton, NY: Delmar.

Cara. E. &amp Stephenson, P. R. R. (2013). The use of psychosocialmethods and interpersonal strategies in mental health. InPsychosocial Occupational Therapy: An Evolving Practice (3rded., pp.643-670). Clifton, NY: Delmar.