a. 1) An analysisof the table in Exhibit 1.20 reveals that Food Chain Supermarket hasa higher likelihood of hiring and promoting whites than blacks. Infact, there is evidence of discrimination in promotion decisions. Forexample, the company has more white employees than black workers.Also, whites were regularly promoted at the expense of blacks.

2) Indeed,Gemson, Thomson, LeBlanc, and Jackson were discriminated against.Despite their longer work experience, these employees were overlookedfor promotion within the firm. Furthermore, the individuals thatreceived promotions had been employed in the organization for ashorter time. Granted, Gemson was surpassed by an employee withseniority. However, the 80% rule shows that the group of workerssuffered discrimination.

3) A “word ofmouth” promotion system lacks transparency since it does notprioritize an individual’s abilities and skills. Moreover, the mostqualified candidate may be overlooked. Consequently, overlookedworkers may become disenchanted. Such a system encouragesdiscrimination since the emphasis is on an individual’sconnections.

4) Rutherfordshould share his findings with the management of Food ChainSupermarkets. Subsequently, he should ensure that current policiesregarding promotion are reviewed and rectified. Additionally,Rutherford should follow up with employees who experienceddiscrimination in the past.

5) The companyneeds to advertise open positions and allow interested employees toapply for the posts. Vacancies need to be announced in forums thatare accessible to all workers. Furthermore, all staff members shouldundergo objective performance evaluations.

b. Firstly, thecompany can implement child-care policies to allow employees to caterto their children’s needs. Also, the company can createfamily-leave policies to ensure that nurses get to spend time withtheir families during the year.

c. i) Reactionmeasures the trainee’s perception of the program. Learning measuresthe amount of knowledge gained by an employee. Behavior measures theextent to which knowledge is applied. Results gauge the impact of theworker on the work environment.

ii) It isappropriate to use pretest/posttest comparison when measuring thedegree of change due to various intervention strategies.

iii) Productionmeasures refer to metrics that demonstrate the success of implementedprograms with respect to solving issues. General applications forproduction measures include increased speed and increased output(Reed &amp Bogardus, 2012). For example, the number ofdiscriminatory incidents could be counted prior to training and thenone year after training to determine the effectiveness of training.

iv) The trainingcost per employee is calculated by adding all the expenses incurredduring training and then dividing by the number of full-time workers(Reed &amp Bogardus, 2012). Employee satisfaction surveys show theeffectiveness of human resource programs. Also, learning surveys canbe used to evaluate how much training skills were applied duringwork.


Reed, S. M. &amp Bogardus, A. M. (2012). PHR / SPHR: Professionalin Human Resources Certification Study Guide (4thed.). Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Pub.