PERSPECTIVE ON EARLY AMERICA 1
Perspectiveon Early America
1. Newman-SlaveRevolts. Describe the slave revolts and attempted slave revoltsduring the 1600s and 1700s. Use examples from the essay in youranswer.
Human history isreplete with incidents that show how enslavement breeds resistanceand eventual rebellion. In this regard, slavery resulted in constantwar between slaves and their masters. The unrelenting power strugglewas fueled by the mistrust that governed slave-master interactions.International slave trade began in 1619 when whites purchasedAfricans to work on agricultural plantations, docks, and horse farms.Slaves had to endure physical suffering, emotional turmoil, and crueldeaths. Some of the punishments included maiming, branding, andwhipping. Moreover, some body parts were chopped off as retributionfor supposed misdeeds. Slave families were also torn apart for thesake of profit maximization.
In the 1600s and1700s, slave resistance took various forms such as feigning illness,forfeiting work, destroying tools, and running away. Furthermore,some slaves fought against slavery using violent insurrections. Inmany instances, slaves rebelled in pursuit of individual freedom.However, most slave conspiracies reflected a desire to crash theslavery system or slay a tyrannical master. African slaves joinedNative American communities to cope with the heavy yoke of slavery.Some blacks formed maroon societies to provide refuge for runaways.Such communities formed an integral part of the attacks aimed at theplantation system. Therefore, many slaves were inclined to resistoppression to protect their dignity and ensure survival.
In the late 18thcentury, some revolts were motivated by a desire to inflict revengefor physical harm. For example, an uprising in New Wales, HanoverCounty showed the willingness of slaves to act in numbers after casesof blatant cruelty. Other slaves resorted to vandalization ofproperty through arson. Although organized resistance wascommonplace, some rebellions were spontaneous. Nonetheless, whitemasters possessed guns and ammunition that guaranteed them victoryduring confrontations.
2. Newman-Frederick Douglass. From the information in this essay write abiography of the life and times of Frederick Douglass.
FrederickDouglass is revered as an exemplary symbol in the fight againstdiscrimination and injustice. In fact, various institutions such asyouth centers and schools have been named after him. Some buildingshave also been dedicated to his memory. Douglass has been labeled asone of the greatest thinkers, orators, and writers in Americanhistory. Young people continue to draw inspiration from his effortsconcerning how to preserve their freedom and civil liberties.
Douglass was bornin Talbot County, Maryland in either 1817 or 1818. During hischildhood, he escaped from the reins of slavery and concealed hisidentity to safeguard his freedom. His upbringing by his mother andgrandmother had a profound effect on his character. Undoubtedly, hisexperiences as a slave of a mixed and illegitimate birth caused himirreparable emotional damage. Besides, the untimely illness and deathof his mother ignited a deep-seated desire for change. Douglassfought for an end to slavery due to the breakup of his family and thedehumanization of captives.
After hismother’s death, Douglass was transferred to Baltimore where hegained literacy while in servitude to Hugh and Sophia Auld.Subsequently, he was sold to Edward Covey, a harsh slave master.Frequent altercations between Douglass and Covey culminated in theformer working for William Freeland. Granted, the encounter with AnnaMurray fueled Douglass’s desire to flee from enslavement. Upon hisescape into the North, Douglass was encumbered by racial opposition.The downturn in the economy also restricted him to odd jobs.Gradually, Douglass became an abolitionist determined to end humanslavery. He campaigned for the rights of African Americans as anordained minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. Asa family man, his wife bore him five children. However, his enduringlegacy is defined by the numerous lectures he gave in defending therights of blacks.
3. Gudelunas-American Politics. Describe the evolution of the two-party politicalsystem in our early history and use examples from this essay in youranswer.
The nation’sfounding fathers were initially opposed to the development ofpolitical factions. Such skepticism was reflected during the draftingof the United States Constitution. It was widely feared that havingdistinct political parties would undermine the country’s unity. Inthis respect, reinforcing the views of narrow groups would createdivisions.
The country’sstatus as a republic necessitated the formation of parties to linkthe government with its citizens. Notably, autocracies lackedpolitical parties since they propagated the ideas of an individual.It could be argued that the adoption of a two-party political systemin the U.S. was in imitation of Great Britain’s setup.Nevertheless, America’s growth into a two-party country owes to thefact that one party would win all seats if it garnered a majorityvote. Consequently, compromise and consensus were exalted aboveconflict.
AlthoughPresident George Washington resisted the formation of parties,factions developed among members of his cabinet. In particular,fundamental issues such as the constitutionality of the National Bankand the powers of the Federal government polarized opinion. AlexanderHamilton`s supporters referred to themselves asDemocratic-Republicans while the followers of Thomas Jefferson werecalled Federalists. The ensuing divisiveness caused frequent clashesfrom the late 18th century to the early 19thcentury. During the intervening period, Republicans and Federalistspresented different candidates for public office. Some of thecontested posts include the Presidency, Congress, state legislatures,and governorships.
The Republicanswere highly dominant since they won every presidential contest during1800-1820. Their supremacy was due to their strong appeal to thelarge population of farmers. On the other hand, the Federalistsenjoyed considerable support in urban areas owing to their focus oncommerce and business. Subsequently, ideological differences led tothe formation and dissolution of the Whig Party. Eventually, theDemocrats and the Republicans emerged as the two prominent parties inAmerican politics.
6. Ennis-Comingof the Civil War. How does Ennis describe the major causes of theCivil War? Use examples from the essay in your answer.
The AmericanCivil War is considered one of the most catastrophic events in thecountry`s history. Sadly, the crisis led to the loss of over 600,000lives. In fact, it is estimated that greater casualties resulted fromthe conflict in comparison to the total victims from all priorAmerican wars. Understandably, many Americans still bear emotionalscars from the war. It is important to examine the interaction ofcultural, economic, and political aspects that preceded thebloodshed. Nevertheless, fundamental differences between the Southernand Northern regions played a significant role towards the outbreakof the Civil War.
Human slavery wasthe primary trigger that caused the differences between the South andthe North. Although the Civil War seemed inevitable, it is importantto note that both sides experienced devastating consequences. Thesoutherners engaged in the war due to the desire to control theirpolitical future. In particular, the southern states feared that theywould lose Congressional influence. In this regard, they wereconvinced that the abolition of slavery would upset the balance ofpower between free and slave states. Additionally, they wereconcerned about restrictions on slavery if they relinquished power inthe Federal government. Therefore, slave trade caused an intensetussle over political control.
Also, slavery had become deeply ingrained into the fabric of thesouthern society. In fact, the slave population exceeded four millionby the mid-18th century. Notably, the abolition of slaverywould create competition for employment as the slaves becameemancipated. Consequently, the white southern families weredetermined to maintain their superior position over the slaves.Granted, many Americans manifested allegiance to their local regionsas opposed to the country. Despite the reconciliatory efforts ofpeople like Henry Clay, both sides failed to compromise.Nevertheless, slave trade caused fundamental differences between bothsides that ultimately led to the Civil War.