Allocationby Hazard Formula
O.W.Wilson developed this method of police allocation in the 1940’s andit entailed allocation of a hazard score to each crime by putting theincidence of the crime as a priority. After calculating the totalweighted sum for each region, it was determined the number ofofficers to be allocated accordingly(Fritsch, Liederbach & Taylor, 2009).
In this model, most of the emphases is put on redistribution of police units depending on factors of need, which were based on crimes that demanded the police the most.
The criteria of weighting and other factors in this model were extremely subjective.
Using this method means that a region can have an increases number of arrests as a results of more units deployed to the place and this leads to more and more allocation of more patrol units.
Thismethod of patrol allocation cannot be used in a modern city. Thereason for not using it is because it has a faulty math used tocalculate the patrol allocation. Additionally, it has not beenpossible to formulate and assess the relevant variables. Therefore,it becomes very hard to use the methodology to match the patrol needsof a modern city.
Data-DrivenVariables Used in Allocation Studies
Calls for service
Thisdata driven variable has a great impact on the allocation of officerson patrol. It is the number of calls for service that a departmentreceives. It includes all the calls for a particular period. In thiscase, more officers are assigned to units with more calls for servicecompared to departments with fewer calls for service.
Thisvariable plays an important role because it helps the person incharge to know which months are best to have the officers undergoextra training(Zhang, Sinha & Tambe, 2015).Additionally, also enables one to know when they should take avacation and when the officers should take compensatory time.
Thisis the average time taken by an officer to handle a service call.Often, the total number of calls is taken into account and not thetype of call.
Thisvariable enables the person in charge to be accountable for the totaltime spent on calls for service by patrol officers.
PolicyVariables Used in Allocation Studies
Thisrefers to the time the officers take to respond to emergency ornon-emergency calls. When the response time goal is inappropriate theadministrators can adjust it to enable the officers run effectively.A priority system is used to establish different response time goalsfor emergency and non-emergency calls(Zhang, Sinha & Tambe, 2015).
Theresponse time goals are used in determining the number of officersrequired to achieve the response time objectives. When the responsetime goals are slightly high then it requires less officers to meetthe objectives of this time goal.
2.Immediate Availability to Respond to Emergencies
Ina police department, it is very necessary to have officers pendingwho can always respond to an emergency. The number of times that adepartment requires at least one officer available to be deployed toan emergency will greatly affects allocation(Zhang & Brown, 2013).This decision has to be made by administrators depending on how theycan preempt or not preempt that an officer on another call of servicecan clear and handle an emergency call of service.
Fritsch,E. J., Liederbach, J., & Taylor, R. W. (2009). Policepatrol allocation and deployment.Pearson Prentice Hall.
Zhang,Y., & Brown, D. E. (2013). Police patrol districting method andsimulation evaluation using agent-based model & GIS. SecurityInformatics,2(1),1.
Zhang,C., Sinha, A., & Tambe, M. (2015, May). Keeping pace withcriminals: Designing patrol allocation against adaptive opportunisticcriminals. In Proceedingsof the 2015 international conference on Autonomous agents andmultiagent systems (pp.1351-1359). International Foundation for Autonomous Agents andMultiagent Systems.