Name of Student

Nameof Student

TheBiggest Challenge in Completing College Career

My biggest challenge in completing my college career is balancingeverything that I need to do within the available time. The collegecurriculum is designed in a way that facilitates the development of abalanced personality. Therefore, I find it difficult to focus on onething whereas I am expected to develop all-round skills as advised bythe institution (Simiyu 16). It is my responsibility to divide theavailable time between all the processes I have to undertake in andoutside the college. They include communication skills development,academic advancement, practical expertise improvement, and thedevelopment of positive relationships. This approach to learning willhelp me survive the unpredictable external environment aftergraduation. Additionally, I also know the significance of dedicatingadequate time to gather appropriate knowledge while still in collegeto help me undertake my responsibilities efficiently later.

Itis essential that I allocate sufficient time for my studies since theconcepts being introduced in classes are complex (Simiyu 17).Apparently, my college encourages independence in a way that placesgreater responsibilities on learners’ innovation capacities. Theaim of giving students tasks is to develop people who are capable ofdiagnosing problems, hypothesizing solutions, testing, and eventuallyapplying them to facilitate progress in various organizationalcontexts. I have to show that I have become resourceful anddependable. The goal is to enhance my competence position to thehighest level possible. In this case, I usually form discussiongroups to facilitate the elaboration of the things we were taught aswell as promote the exchange of experiences.

Similarly,I face time-related challenges when it comes to research. Iacknowledge that studies are important because they can help medevelop a wider perception on concepts and develop comprehensiveapproaches to related issues both at work and home. I should also beable to supplement this approach using internships programs to getpractical experience regarding how the concepts are applied.

Timealso becomes limited since I have to balance all the elementsdiscussed earlier in a way that creates space for a part-time job.Work is necessary as I have to purchase reading materials, pay foraccommodation, and facilitate my survivability among others. As atransitioning adult, my responsibilities both in the academic andsocial life increases, thus limiting the time I have to complete mytasks.


Simiyu,N. W. W. (2010). Individual and institutional challenges facingstudent athletes on US college campuses. Journalof Physical Education and Sports Management,1(2),16-24.

Name of Student

Nameof Student

Inthe book, Resisting McDonaldization, Joseph Ritzer uses the term torefer to the sociological phenomenon in the contemporary society.However, the roots of the situation can be traced back to 1903 whenHenry Ford established the first assembly line with the aim ofimproving the development of automobiles in the United States. Thisvision later became the most preferred approach to production. Inthis context, McDonaldization can be perceived as a rationalizationprocess because it challenges the traditional practices and replacesthem with procedures which lean towards achieving efficient outcomes.From a sociological perspective, it can also be understood as the actof substituting traditional rules which are mostly considered to beinconsistent with modern ideas alleged to be reasonable.Additionally, McDonaldization can also be argued as a theory ofcreation which asserts that any chore can be broken down using arationalization approach.

Inthis case, tasks are fragmented to the smallest possible units tofind the most effectual solution methods. As a result, systems aredeveloped which can be used to complete the tasks in a particular wayevery time. One of the positive aspects of this approach is that itfacilitates organized, dependable, and quantifiable outcomes.However, the sociological perspective on the matter cautions againstthe danger of over-rationalizing processes which is bound to happenas people increasingly become self-centered as highlighted by thecase of McDonald Food Company. It causes irrationality in ways thatcompromise the survivability of human beings. Therefore, this paperseeks to discuss the efforts which seem realistic in ResistingMcDonaldization.

TheScope of the Problem

Thediscussion regarding the irrational impact of McDonaldization cannotbe overemphasized considering the overwhelming pieces of evidence inthe modern community. One of the ways of assessing the adverseeffects of irrationality, which is caused by over-rationality, isthrough exploring how McDonalds Food Company has influenced health.Although the Corporation has enhanced efficiency by making foodstuffaccessible to individuals who may not have time to cook, it has comeat a significant health-related cost for the American society. It haschanged the way of life, thus compromising the values which oncecharacterized people’s food choices. For instance, a studyconducted by Currie (32) perceives the high prevalence rate ofobesity, weight gain, and diet-related diseases to be facilitated byMcDonald’s Company among others. In a different research, Stender,Dyerberg, and Arne (888) sought to determine the causal links betweenfast foods and diseases by exploring the outcomes of variousrandomized investigations on the issue.

Theresults indicated an indisputable connection between fast-food andrapid weight gain as well as an extended period of insulinresistance. Specifically, people who get their meals from suchrestaurants are likely to gain approximately 4.5 kg and 104% of moremass and insulin opposition respectively (Stender et al. 888). Suchdiets facilitate such health predicaments because they are served inlarge portions and contain high energy density which is often storedas fats when not utilized by the body. The outcome also foundMcDonald chain of restaurants to be at fault of perpetuating theproblem because it is the largest fast-food company in America andother countries. As a result, approximately 34% and 17% of adults andchildren aged between 2 and 19 years respectively in the UnitedStates are obese (CDC n/p). Obesity-related diseases include stroke,cancer, and type-2 diabetes. It is also the leading cause ofpreventable death in the country. In 2008, the projected annualmedical expense related to obesity was $147 billion.

Thecritical assessment of McDonald Food Company, one of the corporationswhich have diligently adhered to the concept of McDonaldization,reveals that efficiency is the primary objective of rationalizationprocesses. Modern enterprises are exploiting the fact that life isincreasingly becoming fast by adopting strategies which seeminglymake life convenient for consumers. Fast-food restaurants havereplaced traditional home cooking. Online classes have swappedposition with the typical school classroom. Lastly, but not least,social media sites have substituted the famous face to facecommunication as seen in the case of online guidance and counselingsessions. The satisfaction that customers receive includes free timefor doing other things. For instance, professors do not need to gohome and cook at night while they can spend that time conductingresearch.

However,there is a sacrifice to be made by consumers to enjoy the efficiencyprovided by organizations. Specifically, they must abide by thestandards which companies set in their pursuit of efficiencyregardless of their opinions. For instance, fast-food restaurantsmake their products readily available, but cause greater healthconcerns as analyzed in the preceding chapter. Information technologyapplications such as Facebook make communication easy but compromisethe process of the community association and cooperation. Onlineclasses make it convenient for people to study from home, but denythem the opportunity to share experiences with other students. A lotof businesses such as Nike resorted to outsourcing labor to minimizetheir cost of production, thus limiting job opportunities in thecountries where they are based (Dumbili 1). The assembly line adoptedby several companies also compromises the development of operationalskills among employees because tasks are broken down and handleddifferently.


Mostcompanies make consumers dependable on their products and services bylimiting their choices. For instance, the fact that most people eat alot of unhealthy food cannot be blamed exclusively on the process ofrationalization, but also on the fact that most of them do not have arange of options. The limitation in the existence of alternatives isfacilitated by cartels, inadequate or lack of information, andineffective governmental policies. Food inclusive (n/p), a videodocumentary on the trends in the food industry, sets the recordstraight by demystifying the myths which have so far been associatedwith unavailability of healthy food. Firstly, the large players inthe food industry have formed cartels whose function is to limit theproduction of safe meals. Arguably, fast foods are cheaper andsimpler to prepare than home cooked meals.

Thesecompanies do not want to be pushed to a point where they have tosubstitute the production of fast foods with healthy meals. As aresult, they intentionally omit or include false calorie informationin their products as it has been the case of most organizationsproducing beverages. The aim is to encourage consumers to continuebuying their products. Additionally, they limit the supply ofmaterials needed to prepare recommended foodstuff with the goal ofcreating greater demand and escalating the prices of the relatedproducts. In such a case, people who exist in the middle and lowereconomic tiers would have no option but to buy cheap and readilyavailable fast food because they do not have adequate resources toget healthy food. These are some of the sacrifices that thecommunity has to make to enjoy efficiency perpetuated by most firms.

Inpage 156, Ritzer provides some possible things to do to resistMcDonaldization. They include living in apartments, using localhairstylists, reducing the number of visitation to fast-foodrestaurants, and visiting eating places serving food that resemblehome cooked meals. The author’s idea was to inform the public thatthey have control over the decisions they make. He further impliesthat people should make conscious choices of avoiding or abandoninghabits that seem to reinforce the existence of McDonaldization. Thisapproach can be supported by enhancing people’s awareness to givethem more leverage for making rational decisions. Scholars such asKellner (3) claimed that Ritzer’s book largely seeks to illuminatethe issue of McDonaldization and provide a wealth of information tohelp people make informed consents.

Itdescribes the theoretical context of the concept, how it is applied,and its impacts in the community. According to Bayesian Paradigm,people’s perception of the universe tends to expand with increasedawareness (Karni &amp Viero 2790). Individuals develop the feelingthat they can do a lot of things with the new information theyacquire. The assumption of this strategy is that people will abandonparticular lifestyles if they know in advance that they can posesevere adverse effects on their lives. For instance, teachingfamilies about diets and their implications on human health wouldfacilitate better decision making when it comes to food choices. Theywill only get the right kinds of products because they feardeveloping diseases and using a lot of resources later in treatment.Correspondingly, parents will work hard with the aim of amassingresources necessary for getting the right kinds of food for theirfamilies.

Similarly,people will also know that web-supported procedures such as onlineclasses and online guidance and counseling are not as effective asthe traditional processes because they limit the scope ofinteractions. For instance, clients are likely to benefit less whenthey engage in online counseling compared to face to face sessionsbecause their therapists are not able to pick on their non-verbalactivities and react to them effectively. Therefore, it is highlylikely that people would start to think of traditional processes isthe most efficient alternatives when they understand that theefficiency that is brought by web-related processes come at pricessuch as limited insight into issues and little value for the moneythey pay.

Anotherviable approach to resisting McDonaldization is using activists topush the government to develop policies which would compel companiesto meet the cultural, psychological, and socioeconomic interests ofthe public. For instance, companies such as Nike would be forced tocreate a specific number of job opportunities depending on theirsizes rather than outsourcing labor in other countries. This approachwill prevent companies from exploiting the community while givingnothing back to facilitate its development. Societal disorganization,as characterized by the high rate of crime, is predominantly causedby inadequate employment opportunities. Therefore, it does not makeeconomic sense to the country when companies make a lot of profitswhile a large section of the population continues to languish inpoverty.


The paper has analyzed the concept of McDonaldization and presentedthe scope of the challenges it imposes on the contemporary community.The discussion entails an extensive use of McDonald Food Company asan example to develop an understanding of the aspects thatcharacterizes the concept. The same case has been used to clarifythat enhancing awareness of people is the one of the most realisticapproaches that can reinforce the strategies discussed by Ritzer inthe book &quotResisting McDonaldization.&quot The paper has alsoemphasized on the relevance of seeking the government`s support tofacilitate the existence of equality and impose policies which wouldcompel companies to fulfill their corporate social responsibilitiesin ways that meet the socioeconomic needs of consumers.


CDC.&quotAdult Obesity Facts.&quot Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015. Web. 09 Aug. 2016.

Currie,Janet. &quotThe effect of fast food restaurants on obesity andweight gain.&quot AmericanEconomic Journal: Economic Policy2.3 (2010): 32-63.

Dumbili,Emeka W. &quotMcDonaldization and Job Insecurity.&quot SAGEOpen3.2 (2013): 2158244013491950.

FoodInc.Netflix, 2008. Web. 11 July 2016. Retrieved from

Karni,Edi, and Marie-Louise Vierø. &quot“Reverse Bayesianism”: Achoice-based theory of growing awareness.&quot TheAmerican Economic Review103.7 (2013): 2790-2810.

Kellner,Douglas. &quot12 Theorizing/Resisting McDonaldization.&quotResistingMcDonaldization(2009): 186.

Ritzer,George. &quotThe McDonaldization of society.&quot G.Ritzer(2015).

Stender,Steen, J. Dyerberg, and Arne Astrup. &quotFast food: unfriendly andunhealthy.&quot Internationaljournal of obesity31.6 (2007): 887-890.

Name of Student

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RealEstate Economic and City Planning

Thedeclining cost of connecting over long distances has only increasedthe returns of clustering together”(Glaeser 248).

Inthe past, distance limited people’s choices regarding where theystayed, lived, worked, played, and shopped. It also determined wherecompanies identified jobs, the locations of various factories, andthe market of different organizations. These choices were made forconvenience purposes rather than preference. For instance, a longdistance of separation between a given industrial unit and thetargeted market would increase the company’s cost of operation,thus reducing its profit margin. It would also mean that productswould arrive in the market late because faster means oftransportation were too expensive to be considered. Correspondingly,families opted to stay near workplaces to reduce the cost oftransportation. Additionally, staying far from work wouldinconvenience people in terms time as faster means of movement wasexpensive and unaffordable to low-class members of the society.

From the above assessment, it is apparent that transportation costwas the primary determinant of location. Therefore, it does not meanthat people prefer to stay or work in their current places.Similarly, it does not mean that companies prefer to operate anddeliver their products in particular markets. They only do so to cutthe expenses that result from traveling over long distances. In fact,companies would prefer to cluster in specific places because of therelated benefits. For instance, organizations which are located neareach other are likely to take advantage of a pool of expertise andexperiences. Also, they are likely to cluster around a given learninginstitution with the aim of benefiting from research. A region withbetter trade policies and low-interest rates such as the UnitedStates is likely to appeal to some companies. Investors also tend togo to countries with high political stability and low economic risks.

EdwardGlaser’s assertion implies that change has already begun to takeplace regarding the cost of transportation. It can only mean that theemergence of various technological processes in the transport sectorhas presented more options, thus reducing the monopoly of conveyancecompanies. As a result, the cost of commuting has started to reducesignificantly with the existence of various alternatives to efficienttransportation systems. It also implies that competition in thetransport industry has increased with the emergence of thesecommuting options. Therefore, enterprises in the sector haveidentified cost as an area which can be targeted to offer value toconsumers. As they reduce the cost to enable them to competeeffectively in the market, they give customers of their services ahigh leverage and decision making flexibility.

Asa result, companies which depend on their services do not have toestablish their factories near their target markets anymore. They canstay in their preferred locations and still transport their productsand services to their target markets without incurring a lot ofexpenses. Similarly, they can access different markets as opposed tothe previous instances when they were restricted to specific areas.At the same time, people can stay in their preferred regions andstill travel to workplaces conveniently without straining theirresources. In such a case, individuals are likely to flock placeswith the best schools, competent health centers, high-quality livingspaces, and other social amenities. Additionally, companies willgather around regions with better economic, trade, and politicalpolicies. Glaeser (248) gave an example of how the high quality oflife in Paris makes it a desirable area of settlement. He alsoclaimed that good public governance coupled with enhancedinfrastructure in Singapore attracts investors. Additionally, thebetter policies have facilitated the movement of immigrants toVancouver. From this examples, it is apparent that high cost ofliving, lack of better infrastructure, and lack of skilled laborcould limit a city’s ability to join the new age as foreseen byEdward Glaeser.


Glaeser,Edward L. Triumphof the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter,Greener, Healthier, and Happier.New York: Penguin Press, 2011. Internet resource.