Molecular and Quantum Assessment Questions

Molecularand Quantum Assessment Questions

Molecularand Quantum Assessment Questions

Question1: Photon and electrons

The diagramshows an atom with an electron whose probable energy levels areillustrated. The energy of each higher level is given comparative tothe ground state.

  1. From the first illustration, the highest energy level = 12. This means that moving the electron to this level will emit photon energies of 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0, and 12.0. This is because the electron has four levels i.e. level 1 (E1), level 2 (E2), level 3 (E3), level 4 (E4), where,

E1=0

E2= 5

E3= 9

E4= 12

Since the lowest level = 0, the electron will first jump from 0 to 5,then to 9 and finally to 12. The difference between the level wherethe electron is and where it jumps, for example, from 0 to 5 is theenergy a photon must absorb and move the electron from level 1 tolevel 2 or the amount of energy in quantity.

Therefore, E1=0 to E2= 5 is 5 – 0 = 5

E2= 5 to E3= 9 is 9 -5 = 4

E3= 9 to E4= 12 is 12 -9 = 3, which means the possible values are 5, 4, 3, andthen the quantity of the first and second values, second and thirdvalues, and all the values. This gives, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 9.0, 7.0, and12.0.

  1. The incoming photon has 9 units. As pictured, the electron is in the ground state thus, the photons will be absorbed and electrons stimulated to level 9. The ground state is the external environment hence, the electron will drop and provide the equivalent frequency of the photon i.e. 9 units. Ultimately, the electron will become unstable at higher energy levels.

  2. The incoming photon has an energy level of 5 units. As illustrated in the picture, the electron is in the first absorbed or affected state i.e. energy level = 5 thus, the atom will not absorb any electron or photon. The atom will only absorb energies from 9.0 (the level where the electron can jump from 5.0) to 5.0, from 12.0 (highest level) to 5.0 (excited level), or energies greater than E4 = 12 – E2 = 5, and will not absorb any other energy.

Question2: The concept of quantum computer and Qubit

A quantumcomputer is a computation mechanism or device, which makes directutilization of quantum mechanical aspects such as entanglement andsuperposition to accomplish the operation of data. A quantum computerencodes information as qubits or quantum bits, which can exist insuperposition (Monroe et al., 2014). A quantum computer allows thequbits to exist in a superposition of both states at the same timeunlike in classical systems, where a bit must exist in one or anotherstate. A qubit is the unit of quantum information and is a two-statesystem such as the divergence of a single photon. Bhushan (2004)assert that qubits represent ions, electrons, atoms, photons andtheir corresponding control mechanisms that work together to act asprocessor or computer memory. In a qubit, a set duo of jointly andstandardized orthogonal quantum statuses, {∣0⟩, ∣1⟩}denote the Boolean statuses 0 and 1. These binary statuses generate acomputational foundation and one can write any added situation of thequbit as a superposition k∣0⟩ + l∣1⟩for some k and l such that ∣k∣2 + ∣l∣2 = 1

Bhushan (2004)assert that it is possible to superconduct a qubit, which shows thatengineers can customize and scale the qubits. For example, engineersat IBM have managed to scale technologies into complete products andpromote microfabrication and superconductivity (Monroe et al., 2014).Even if a person or an entity manages to solve all the technicalissues regarding stability manufacturing, scalability, design,architecture, and programming issues would need to be resolved. It isimportant to note that operating at the quantum scale meansfunctioning at extremely unconducive environment such as lowtemperatures. Furthermore, the particles are inconsistent and sincethe quantum state is measured in microseconds, it would be difficultto develop an effective coherence time. Evaluating quantum statesusually causes the states to collapse, and this requires a mastery ofquantum entanglement and correlation or the element that links thestates of two units together.

Question3: Molecular switch and molecular computer

A molecularswitch is a molecular that can be reversibly moved between two ormore stable states in response to the presence of a ligand orenvironmental stimuli such as changes in light or temperature(Bhushan, 2004). This shows that the outside stimuli activates theswitch. For instance, the pH indicator that reversibly alters colorin reaction to changing the pH of a medium. This means that themolecules from a stable state are converted to another metastablestructure or state. The conversion occurs when external situations orconditions caused by alterations in molecules impulsively return totheir original or steady state. Electric stimuli separated the ionsfrom each other, which leads to delocalization of electronsconnecting the ions (Träger, 2012). Although the nature of theregulation stimulations differs across switches, when the inputstimulation reaches the switch, it changes the physical condition andproduces a definite yield, which powers the switch. Once, the inputindicator is off, the chemical structure returns to its originalstate. In an Azobenzene photochromic switch, mechanical andnon-covalent bonding interactions hold the components together whilea photochemical, or electrochemical stimuli induces the switch.

A molecularswitch is powerful, compact, and can attain parallel computing byutilizing molecular switch control (Träger, 2012). This means thatthe development of molecular switches will continue to havefundamental technological and scientific implications especially ininformation technology and biomedical exploration. For example, theswitch is able to capture a range of diseases indicators thus, isused to diagnose illnesses and controlling drug release. According toCordones and Leone (2013), chemical methods to executing particlesized switches seem auspicious. The switches remain prospectivebecause of the small sizes of chemical particles and the power oforganic fusion.

Question 4: The mechanism of a laser diode and its advantages

A laser diode is a power-driven semiconductor mechanism that emits anarrow beam of coherent light. The diode is designed by fixing a verythin layer of crystal on the surface of a crystal wafer (Sciamanna &ampShore, 2015). The crystal is doped or fixed to generate a p-type andan n-type region, one below the other, which results in a p-n jointor diode. Sciamanna and Shore (2015) contend that the diode generatesa subclass of a greater set of semiconductor p-n joint diodes. When afrontward electrical bias is pressed across the lasers, two variedforms of charge carriers, electrons and holes are inserted fromdifferent sides of the joint where electrons are inserted from then-type and holes from p-type. When the holes combine with theelectrons, the excess energy is converted into photons, whichinteract with incoming electrons, and subsequently, generate morephotons in a process called resonance. In AV fiber optictransmitters, the laser diodes are utilized as the light source fortransmitting control, audio, and video signals (Cordones &amp Leone,2013 Sciamanna &amp Shore, 2015). The output from a laser diode ishigh and directional, which ensures great levels of connectionefficiency into fiber optics. This permits the utilization of singlemode fibers, which ensures great transmission distances to beattained. Furthermore, laser diodes have a coherent light yield,which means the light is ostensibly on a single frequency and modaldiffusion is greatly less. It is easy to modulate and combine lightsources for fiber optics with high data rates thus, the wide use oflaser diodes in transmitting information through fiber optics.

Question5: Video assessment

The videoprovides a fascinating and profound insight into the evolvingtechnological-based world. As the video suggests, the world isevolving and moving in a direction full of mergers and collapse offirms that fail to include technology as part of their gene (Sloan &ampThompson, 2005). The convergence of popular services will continue tooccur, for example, Facebook has in recent times acquired WhatsAppand Instagram. However, the video makes some incorrect assumptions,for example, the merger of Google and Amazon to form Googlezon andeventually the creation of EPIC (Sloan &amp Thompson, 2005). ICloudservices have become the next-big-thing and every technology companyfrom Apple, Google, Amazon, and Microsoft, to Dropbox Inc. However,people crave their privacy and some of the fictional happeningsasserted will not occur. The merger between Google and Amazon did notoccur, YouTube has become a sensation, newspapers are still presentand will continue to provide information in the near future while theformation of EPIC cannot possibly happen. This is because theproduction and dissemination of information are complex and notstandardized and the presence of different of different countriesmeans an information national grid is not viable. The occurrences inChina, for example, the prohibition of Facebook and WhatsApp, pointto the failure of any company trying to control information. However,countries rather than companies may attempt to control the internet,information, and privacy.

References

Bhushan, B. (2004).&nbspSpringer handbook of nanotechnology.Springer Science &amp Business Media.

Cordones, A. A., &amp Leone, S. R. (2013). Mechanisms for chargetrapping in single semiconductor nanocrystals probed by fluorescenceblinking. Chemical Society Reviews,&nbsp42(8),3209-3221.

Monroe, C., Raussendorf, R., Ruthven, A., Brown, K. R., Maunz, P.,Duan, L. M., &amp Kim, J. (2014). Large-scale modularquantum-computer architecture with atomic memory and photonicinterconnects.&nbspPhysical Review A,&nbsp89(2),022317.

Sciamanna, M., &amp Shore, K. A. (2015). Physics and applications oflaser diode chaos.&nbspNature Photonics,&nbsp9(3),151-162.

Sloan, R., &amp Thompson, M. (2005). EPIC 2014. Museum ofMedium History. Retrieved July 26, 2016, fromhttp://idorosen.com/mirrors/robinsloan.com/epic/ols-master.html

Träger, F. (Ed.). (2012).&nbspSpringer handbook of lasers andoptics. Springer Science &amp Business Media.