LITERATURE REVIEW 7
Angercan bedescribedas a critical emotional response provoked by numerous stimulatingcircumstances, including restraint, overt aggression, frustration,disappointment, verbal attack, or threat (Mehta& Sagar, 2015).It prompts physiological and biological alterations like increasedblood pressure, heart rate, and high energy levels. Although angermay not be negative, youths who are not well-resourced to adapt tothe situations may relay their anger in many ways, resulting invarious issues. Some the problems include suicide, depression, andaggression among others (McCarthy& Hutz, 2006).This report will present a literature review concerning angermanagement and impulse control among the adolescents.
Accordingto research conducted by Blake & Hamrin (2007), approaches thatcan be used in the assessment and management of anger as well asaggression in youths were identified. The methodology applied by thestudy involved reviewing of literature extensively through usingMEDLINE, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Cochrane. The study used articlesthat involved participants having the ages between 5 and 17 years andthat had non-pharmacologic, therapy-based interventions. Also, thearticles utilized in the study had to have either usedquasi-experimental or experimental research designs. The resultsindicated that skills-based and cognitive-behavioral approaches werethe most broadly researched and empirically confirmed treatments foranger and aggression among the youths (Blake & Hamrin, 2007). Thestudy also found that the mostly used therapeutic methods includerelaxation training, problem-solving skills, conflict resolution,social skills training, and cognitive restructuring. The limitationsof the study involved the consumption of a lot of time in theselection of articles and their analysis. The implication is thatskills-based and cognitive-behavioral approaches can be applied intreating anger among the adolescents.
Nasir& Abd Ghani (2013) carried out a research to establish thebehavioral and emotional impacts of anger and how to manage angeramong adolescents. The methodology applied involved using 1162adolescents aged 14-16 years. These participants were selectedrandomly from all the public schools in the state of Selangor, WestMalysia. Eight dimensions of anger were utilized in the study andrespondents were expected to indicate ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ on eachitem. Results indicated that boys were more likely to reactphysically compared to girls following aggression. Also, femalesregretted more than boys for expressing their anger. Furthermore,different ways of anger management were presented. The majority (64%)indicated that they calmed themselves, 43.6% took a deep breath whenangry, while 41.4% resolved by reminding themselves about thenegative impacts of anger. Alternatively, a small group (9.1%) saidthat they assumed that the person who caused anger was sick (Nasir &Abd Ghani, 2013). The limitation of the study was the huge number ofparticipants used and the long time utilized in the analysis of data.The implication of the study is that adolescents have problems inmanaging anger and thus they need to be helped.
Ugoani(2014) designed a study to investigate the relationship amidemotional intelligence and anger control. The research involved 294respondents and survey research design was utilized. The data for thestudy became generated through structured questionnaire that usedLikert-type format. The information collected was analyzed using thestatistical package for social sciences version 17. The results ofthe study indicated that emotional intelligence had strong positiveassociation with anger control (Ugoani 2013). The limitation of theresearch was that the respondents used only represented a smallpercentage of the entire population. Therefore, the generalization ofthe results to show that there is a positive relationship amidemotional intelligence and control of anger was not possible. Theimplication of the research is that emotional intelligence can beutilized in the control of anger.
Relationshipbetween Perceived Discrimination and Anger
Hartshornet al. (2012) desired to investigate whether aggressive behaviorsamong the adolescents emerge over time due to perceiveddiscrimination as well as anger. The methodology involved theapplication of autoregressive cross-lagged path analysis to 692indigenous adolescents whose mean age was 12 years. The resultsshowed that perceived discrimination and anger were significantlyconnected to subsequent aggression. Furthermore, early anger anddiscrimination had indirect impacts on aggressive behavior threeyears later, but anger partly mediated the link amid discriminationand aggression. The limitation of the research was that there wassome missing data since adolescents and their families deserted thestudy over time and re-entered after some time (Hartshorn et al.,2012). The missing data may have influenced the outcome. Theimplication of the study is that perceived anger and discriminationmay predict why adolescents become aggressive. Emanating from therelationship, it is critical to decrease any perceived anger anddiscrimination so as to avoid the aggression of adolescents.
Technologyand Anger Control
Technologicaltools such as the internet, mobile phone, telephone, and computerhave been used immensely by the adolescents. Emete & Mehmet(2016) conducted a research so as to investigate the impact of usingthese technology devices towards the aggression and anger inadolescents. The participants in the study involved 215 learnersstudying during 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 academic year in a public anda private school. A comparative case study was utilized in theresearch, where a Likert questionnaire type having 5 scales wasapplied. After collecting data from the surveys of students from thetwo schools, SPSS 16 software became applied and t-test and F teststatistics became employed (Emete & Mehmet, 2016). The resultsdepicted that the use of technological devices was higher among thefemale students compared to the males. This was similar to resultsobtained by Altinay et al. (2013). Also, the students were indicatedto be indecisive in providing proper opinions concerning the use oftechnology tools. The reason behind this outcome was because learnersdid not have sufficient information about the technological devices.The implication of the study is that gender is effective factor inestablishing the use of technological tools as a way of resolvinganger. Also, there is a need to guide the adolescents on the use ofthese appliances because they are not in a position to identify theirmerits and disadvantages.
Angerin Urban and Rural Adolescents
Deyet al. (2014) investigated whether there is a difference in stressand anger among rural and urban adolescents. The research involved120 participants from Chittagong district, Bangladesh. Theserespondents had 13-19 years. In measuring life stress and anger,Bengali version of life stress scale was utilized. The results of thestudy indicated that the level of stress of urban adolescents wasgreater compared to that of their rural counterparts. Also, theresults indicated that female adolescents had higher levels of stresscompared to the male adolescents. Furthermore, the level of stresswas positively correlated to the level of anger. The limitation ofthe study was that the sample size was small, which implied that itwas not a true representative of the entire population. Therefore, itwas not possible to generalize all the adolescents from the region.The implication of the study was that urban adolescents as well asthe rural ones need to be exposed to anger management approaches soas to control the levels.
Angeramong the adolescents is a serious problem that needs to be addressedsince it promptsphysiological and biological alterations like increased bloodpressure, heart rate, and high energy levels. Although anger may notbe negative, youths who are not well-resourced to adapt to thesituations may relay their anger in many ways, resulting in variousissues. Fromthe literature review, it can be indicated that therapeutic methodsthat include relaxation training, problem-solving skills, conflictresolution, social skills training, and cognitive restructuring canbe used in controlling anger among adolescents. Boys are more likelyto react physically compared to girls following aggression. Also,females regret more than boys for expressing their anger. Perceiveddiscrimination and anger are significantly connected to subsequentaggression. Also, the use of technological devices was higher amongthe female students compared to the males. There is a need to guidethe adolescents on the use of these appliances so as to help them inidentifying the advantages and demerits associated with them.Furthermore, the level of stress of urban adolescents is greatercompared to that of their rural counterparts. Besides, femaleadolescents have higher levels of stress compared to the maleadolescents. In addition, it can be indicated that emotionalintelligence can be utilized in the control of anger since the twoaspects have positive correlation.
Blake,C. S. and Hamrin, V. (2007), Current Approaches to the Assessment andManagement of Anger and Aggression in Youth: A Review. Journal ofChild and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 20: 209–221.
Dey,K.B., Rahman, A., Bairagi, A. & Roy, K. (2013). Stress and Angerof Rural and Urban Adolescents. Psychology,5,177-184.
Hartshorn,K. J. S., Whitbeck, L. B. & Hoyt, D. R. (2012). "Exploringthe Relationships of Perceived Discrimination, Anger, and Aggressionamong North American Indigenous Adolescents." SociologyDepartment,Faculty Publications.
McCarthy,S. N., & Hutz, C. S. (2006). Preventingteen violence: A guide for parents and professionals.Westport: Praeger.
Mehta,M., & Sagar, R. (2015). Apractical approach to cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents.New Delhi: Springer.
Nasir,R. & Ghani, A.N. (2014). Behavioraland Emotional Effects of Anger Expression and Anger Management amongAdolescents.Socialand Behavioral Sciences,Vol 140 565-569.
Nelson,E. G. (2014). Destructive Anger Among Adolescents: ManagementStrategies for Principals and Teachers. TheJournal of Adventist Education,18-23.
Ugoani,J. N. (2014). Emotional Intelligence and Anger Control Among UrbanAdolescents in Nigeria. InternationalJournal of Management Sciences.