Journal Entry


Cardiovascular case study

Patient described

Joan is a 42 years old Caucasian woman presented herself to thefacility due to a persistent mild headache and frequent nosebleeding. The patient had a known case of hypertension. Some of therisk factors identified include heavy smoking and alcohol consumptionin her late 20s and early 30s. Since she is not married and has nochildren, she is likely to engage in unhealthy and risky lifestyles.There was no family history of cardiovascular conditions or diabetesdisclosed. She works in a busy hotel. Thus, her job involves a lot ofphysical movements. Initial tests indicated a BP of 144/100mmHg andcholesterol 114 mg/dL. The patient had been using Beta blockers butstopped taking them due to excessive fatigue. Remipril 10mg wasprescribed, and changes in lifestyle were recommended. The client wasadvised to consume more vegetables and less fatty foods. Although shehad reduced the frequency of smoking and drinking, the patient wasencouraged to work harder and discard the habits. During thefollow-up visit, a significant reduction of the symptoms and adversedrug effects was reported.

Role of gender

Several gender-based factors have an impact on the management ofchronic conditions. There is a huge disparity when cardiovascularhealth in men is compared to women (McSweeney et al., 2011).According to Mosca et al. (2011), in the past, the majority ofinitiatives in the prevention and management of cardiovasculardiseases targeted female patients. This resulted in genderdisparities in health outcomes. However, men are more likely toadhere to medical prescription compared to women, especially in thetreatment of chronic conditions (Manteuffel et al., 2014). Also, theyare involved in more physical activities, which enhance theircardiovascular health (Tharpe et al. 2013). These factors will havean influence on Joan treatment. For example, due to her lifestyle,there is a likelihood of noncompliance with medication.


The approach used in this case was successful and resulted in apositive outcome. It involved both clinical interventions andlifestyle changes that would improve the client’s health.Consequently, I would use the same treatment if presented with asimilar case in the future.


Manteuffel, M., Williams, S., Chen, W., Verbrugge, R. R. &ampPittman, D. G. (2014). Influence of patient sex and gender onmedication use, adherence, and prescribing alignment with guidelines.J Womens Health (Larchmt). 23(2):112-9.

McSweeney, J. C., Pettey, C. M., Souder, E., &amp Rhoads, S. (2011).Disparities in Women’s cardiovascular health. Journal ofObstetric, Gynecologic &amp Neonatal Nursing, 40(3), 362–371.

Mosca, L. Barrett-Connor, E. &amp Wenger, N. K. (2012). Sex/GenderDifferences in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, What a Difference aDecade Makes. Circulation. 124(19):2145-54.

Tharpe, N. L., Farley, C., &amp Jordan, R. G. (2013). Clinicalpractice guidelines for midwifery &amp Women’s health (4thed.). Burlington, MA: Jones &amp Bartlett Publishers.