Petrarchsonnets are similar regarding rhyme schemes and meters. Theircharacteristics include iambic pentameter and are fourteen lineslong, with a flexible rhyme consisting of an octave and a sestet.However, the poems varied in themes each sonnet focus is particular.Petrarch’s book known as Canzoniere is composed of 336 sonnets, itshows Petrarch style of writing vividly. It was about a woman namedLaura in her life and after death. For instance, Sonnet 132 describesthe nature of being in love,
Whatdo I feel if this is not love?
Butif it is love, God, what thing is this?
Ifgood, why this effect: bitter, mortal?
Ifbad, then why is every suffering sweet?
TheCanzoniere develops major themes of Petrarch’s sonnets, one of thembeing the meaning of ‘Laura’, that can be themed as love. ‘Laura’made Petrarch express topics such as pain and pleasure, hope anddespair, joy and sorrow, among others. The poems reveal the influenceLaura had made on Petrarch in an entire lifetime up to heaven andeternity.
Theother main theme in Petrarch poems is nature, more specifically howit can provide a soul. Petrarch refers to how he wanders through thewilderness, desert, mountains and shores. He expresses how only thenatural environment knows about his suffering and men do not for hewanders to keep free from people. Sonnet 259, for instance,
I’veoften sought the solitary life
(river-banksknow it, and fields and wood)
toescape these dull and clouded minds,
Whohave lost the road to heaven
TheMandragola is a comedy that offers a deep look into the world ofMachiavelli. Machiavelli is the author of “The Prince” and isfamous for writing grave cold-blooded political tracts. He also wrotecomedies such as Mandragola, poems, fables and letters that arelight-hearted as opposed to the prince. The comic and the tragic inMachiavelli is well expressed in his Mandragola comedy play and hisbook “The Prince”.
TheMandragola shows Machiavelli’s comic and erotic aspect, and hisappreciation of non-political facets. He expresses his desire totreat institutions and political ideas with respect. His ability totake on two extreme sides and create ambiguity in the properunderstanding of Machiavelli is depicted. His tragic interpretationbrought out in “The Prince” suggests Machiavelli’sunderstanding of humanity that virtue fails to provide means throughwhich fortune can be overcome. His comic interpretation, on the otherhand, expressed in Mandragola, claims that man is virtuous andprudent enough to conquer fortune.
Machiavelli’streatment of comedy and tragedy creates a considerable controversy,in one theory, the dark quality of his political writing inspires atragic version of his works. His political teachings of virtue,especially in regards to the capabilities of a prince to stunfortune. The concept of fortune is centred in the controversy sinceit is unclear whether Machiavelli’s virtue is robust enough toconquer fortune. His idea of an ideal man is one who is prudent andvirtues enough to overcome fortune, and one who succumbs to a tragicfate can only blame his lack of such qualities.
In“The Prince”, Machiavelli creates a prince who is inflexible andfallS to fortune and other forces that are encountered. His tragicconclusion arises because he develops doubts about the existence ofan ideal man.
TheMandragola, one of Machiavelli’s comedies revolve around fortunewhich is his main work’s theme, the story expresses the randomnessof life its unpredictability.
Kirkpatrick,R. (2014). Englishand Italian literature from Dante to Shakespeare: a study of source,analogue and divergence.Routledge.