Instrument of Psychological Assessment

Instrumentof Psychological Assessment

Psychologicalassessment entails the process of scrutinizing and gatheringinformation from various sources to come up with some hypothesisabout individual actions, behaviors, capabilities and personality. Usually, psychological assessment tends to be similar topsychological testing. However, it tends to be more comprehensivethan Psychological assessment. It integrates information frommultiple sources with an aim of coming up with a more comprehensiveand detailed understanding of individuals. Psychological assessmenttends to test various factors within a person. Some of those factorsthat are tested via psychological assessment include individualintelligence, capability and personality. It also gathers informationpertaining personal occupation, daily activities and their medicalhistory. Psychological assessment is utilized in different situationsby a psychologist. Some of the areas where it is applied include jobrecruitment, provision of psychological help to the couple, andduring recruitment of new employees (Costa, &amp McCrae, 2015).

Also,psychological assessment is used in court trials to evaluate thereasons that could have led a person to commit a particular crime. Itis advisable to carry out a psychological assessment to criminals whocommit felonies such as murder, and rape. Some of the offenders whocommit such offenses may have psychological and mental problems.Besides, psychological assessment is valuable in job recruitment ithelps employers to evaluate the personality, attitude, and behaviorof the job applicants. The evaluation helps the company to decidethose candidates who meet some specific job needs. The employer maybe able to know the area that may require employees’ careertraining, development, and counseling. Psychologist utilizes variousinstruments to carry out the psychological assessment. One of themost widely used instruments is Psychological Screening Inventory-2(PSI-2) (Costa, &amp McCrae, 2015).

Instrumentof Psychological Assessment

Populationthat was normalized

ThePsychological Screening Inventory-2 was normalizing for a populationthat needs mental help both adolescent and adult populations. PSI-2is an appropriate psychological instrument used for the screen themental health condition of a patient. PSI-2 is aimed at coming upwith valuable information pertaining the Psychological health statusof a patient. It focuses on coming up with psychological results forparticular members of the society so that appropriate diagnosis canbe applied. The instrument is utilized by professionals who have beeninvited to evaluate the mental condition of specific members of thecommunity. Some of the common situations where the instrument is usedinclude clinics, colleges, hospitals, courts and facilities forscreening the mental health conditions for patients. ThePsychological Screening Inventory comprises of one hundred andthirty-nine items that are utilized to carry out a comprehensivepsychological assessment (Costa, &amp McCrae, 2015).

Purposeof the instrument

The purpose of Psychological Screening Instrument is to identifyindividuals who may require a more comprehensive assessment. Theinstrument measures the changes in Psychological symptoms and tendsto be administered during treatments and after treatment. Theinstrument helps to evaluate the mental condition of the patients andoffer a way forward for further diagnosis, counseling, and assistance(Soulier, &amp McBride, 2016).

Therequirements for administration

Therequirements for administration of the Psychological Screeninginventory-2 include validity, reliability, objectivity,standardization, and test norm. During and after administration,professionals using the Psychological Screening Inventory-2 shouldensure that it measures what is intended. The measurement resultsmust be valid and consistent. Validity helps to make sure that theresults give valuable information for proper decision making. Theresults should have minimal or no variations. The otheradministration requirement involves reliability. The instrumentshould be administered in such a way that it gives the same resultsafter conducting several assessments. Objectivity requirement shouldbe taken into consideration. Such adherence may help to eliminatesubjective judgments and also eliminate biases. Also, during theadministration, standardization requirement must be taken intoaccount. The procedures must be carried out in the same environmentso that same results can be attained. Test norms should be taken intoconsideration. There should be a point of comparison of the testscore so that valid and reliable inferences can be arrived at(Soulier, &amp McBride, 2016).

Howis the instrument scored?

ThePsychological Screening Inventory-2 comprises of three scales namelyfour basic screening scale, 21 brief content scale, and sixmisrepresentation scale. The four basic screening scale helps toevaluate various forms of psychological dysfunctions among thepatients. Some of the four top malfunctions that tend to be assessedunder basic screening include critical psychiatric disorders,antisocial behaviors, psychological distress, stress, and depression.Besides, the basic scale is also utilized to measure the personalityof a patient. For example, it measures whether one is an extrovert,introversion and their defensiveness. The twenty-one general scalesare utilized to provide additional information that the twenty-onebasic scales could not have captured. Some of the information thatthe twenty-one general scale help to capture is the person lowesteem, difficulties in maintaining a healthy relationship, angerfeelings, isolation and personal conduct during childhood. Thetwenty-one general scales also help to find out the antisocialcharacteristics within a person being evaluated. It assesses theirhealth problems, the level of concentration, and identifies thesymptoms for anxiety within a patient (Soulier, &amp McBride, 2016).

The general scale goes a step further to determine the symptoms ofanxiety within a person so that a comprehensive report can becompiled pertaining the patient mental health. The sixmisrepresentation scales help to complement the other two scalesdiscusses by providing more detail information relating to thepatient. Some of the valuable information identified using themisrepresentation scale include overstatement of patient healthproblems, over endorsement, psychiatric stereotype excessive virtualendorsement, and erroneous psychiatric stereotype. The primary focusof misrepresentation scale is to measure the degree of corporationamong the subjects under the assessment (Soulier, &amp McBride,2016).

Thethree Psychological scales fall within three main types of rangesscores namely normal range, possible concern, and definite concern.Under the normal range, the patient score falls below the 85thpercentile which implies that the patient psychological condition isbelow the standard range. If the patient psychological, mental healthstatus falls within the normal range, it suggests that theirpsychological, mental condition is in a good state. The possibleconcern scale implies that the psychological, psychiatric assessmentinformation falls between the range of 85th and 94th percentile. Theother score is definite concern shows those score that falls abovethe 95th percentiles. Such score tends to invalidate the results ofthe test. The scale tends to reflect the individual personality andhelp to come up with the way forward for designing the mostappropriate Psychological assistance that a person should be given(Soulier, &amp McBride, 2016).

Possibleprofiles/diagnosis distribution that can be suggested by thisinstrument

Thepossible profile or diagnosis distributions that can be proposed bythe PSI-2 are as follows. It can be used to aid counseling by mentalhealth agencies. PSI-2 is mainly used for detecting changes amongpersons who are over 16 years and suggest for extensive exams. It canalso be applied to both individual and group assessment. Theinstrument can be suitable for online distribution in the situationswhere the assessment involve people located over a broad geographicallocation (Colin`s el at, 2015).

Howthe instrument can be used to improve accuracy/ efficiency of theapplication of psychological practice

Theuse of PSI-2 instrument may help to improve the accuracy andefficiency of the psychological practice by detecting individuals andgroups of people who may need more extensive test prior actualdiagnosis. It contributes towards ensuring efficiency andeffectiveness in the provision of mental health care. Prior anydiagnosis, the instrument gathers all the necessary information thatmay help mental health professionals to recommend for appropriatediagnosis (Shulman, Bechtold, Kelly, &amp Cauffman, 2016).

Conclusion

Itcan be observed that Psychological Screening Inventory-2 is one ofthe most valuable instruments for Physiological assessment. It can beused to carry out mental screening among different members of thepopulation. The instrument is normalized for a population above 16years. The purpose of this instrument is to identify individuals anda group of people who may require a more extensive test. Therequirements for administration of PSI-2 include standardization,norm test, validity, and reliability. The instrument comprises ofthree scales and three range scores that have been discussed. Thepossible profile for diagnosis using PSI-2 is for people ranging from16 years and above. Conclusively, the instrument can improve accuracyand efficiency of Psychological practice by identifying people whomay need more extensive assessment. Besides, it provides valuableinformation for proper application of psychological practice.

References

Aalsma,M. C., Schwartz, K., &amp Perkins, A. J. (2014). A statewidecollaboration to initiate mental health screening and assess servicesfor detained youths in Indiana. Americanjournal of public health,104(10),e82-e88.

Colins,O. F., Grisso, T., Vahl, P., Guy, L., Mulder, E., Hornby, N., &ampVermeiren, R. (2015). Standardized screening for mental health needsof detained youths from various ethnic origins: the DutchMassachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Version (MAYSI-2).Journalof psychopathology and behavioral assessment,37(3),481-492.

Costa,P. T., &amp McCrae, R. (2015). The NEO Inventories as instruments ofpsychological theory. In TheOxford Handbook of the Five Factor Model of Personality.

Shulman,E. P., Bechtold, J., Kelly, E. L., &amp Cauffman, E. (2016). MentalHealth Screening in Juvenile Justice Settings Evaluating the Utilityof the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Version 2. CriminalJustice Policy Review,0887403416650250.

Soulier,M., &amp McBride, A. (2016). Mental health screening and assessmentof detained youth. Childand adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America,25(1),27-39.