Instructor`s name



(Differenceswhen you came back from home and when you were in deployed)

Armyveterans face numerous challenges when they come back from combat.Apart from psychological disorders, they find it hard acclimatizingto the new or rather old environments. They are likely to sufferpsychotic, mood, and anxiety disorders that impact negatively intheir daily lives. According to terror novels, veteran soldiers arethe most common patients of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTDs).

Itis a mental status that is typically prompted by a distressing eventeither witnessed or experienced. Most of them suffer due to theexperience [ CITATION USD161 l 1033 ].Thethemes of fear and guilt, faith and brutality, survival andhelplessness are interwoven within the short stories to illustratethe effects of war on the soldiers. Thispaper will discuss the challenges veteran soldiers face when theycome back home. Some of the most common queries emanating from thereturnees include what are the challenges they face? How is familylife after deployment? What is their mental state?

Theredeployment novel is a set of short stories comprising ofexperiences of Army veterans who served in the Iraq war. Published in2014, the book received numerous accolades for the detailedinformation. According to critics, the book is currently the bestthat has been done to illustrate war. The book captures all theaspects the Iraq war evoked including predicaments, heartbreak, andemotions. It possesses biting, whipsawing, sad and hilarious momentsto illustrate precisely how the war affected people. Phil Klay is aveteran soldier and is, therefore, well acclimatized to theatmosphere of war. A civilian reader can have a feel of whattranspired at war and how the involved persons are coping.

InFrago, the readers are taken to the frontline of the wars in Iraq. Itenables the reader to comprehend what occurred in the region, whatthe soldiers faced, and who returned. In redeployment, soldiers whohad to kill or rather shoot a dog for feasting on human corpse haveto acclimatize to new situations when they return home [CITATION Phi14 p 35 l 1033 ].The perception towards dogs changes considerably while at home and indeployment.

Thesoldiers perform their undertakings with a sense of humor. Forinstance, Lance Corporal McKeown suggests that Al-Qaeda produces theworst pornos after viewing the camera where some guys were beingtortured. Comic at war is one way of hiding the fear. Though thesoldiers move from one room to another in search of the enemies, theyhide their fear through hilarious comments as well as funnynicknames. Relating the same to happenings at home may be entirelydifferent.

Mostof the veterans are too entrenched in their past deeds to feel happy.A soldier’s life at war deteriorates family life if the correctmeasures are not taken to deal with the same. Sweet’s injury bringsabout the human nature of the soldiers. Though they had successfullycaptured the area, they were all affected by the damage. Dyer couldbe seen gazing and probably praying to God for assistance. These arecommon occurrences in combat. Such views stick in the minds andresult in psychological disorders while at home [CITATION Phi14 p 53 l 1033 ].

Survivaland helplessness is a key aspect of a soldier’s life at war. Forexample, a good day in deployment is exemplified when no soldierdies. Though Sweet gets injured, the day is still regarded as a goodone since no one died. The soldiers have to comprehend a good and badday differently while in combat and at home. It is even harder whenthey get back home. As the narrator puts it, on seeing her wife, shedoes not know what to do.

Hejust figures out kissing is the most appropriate thing. War typicallyalters a person’s emotional aspects. Expressing love and holding ona conversation becomes harder. Having the wife back feels like afirst date. Her body, behavior and all she does seem new. Thesoldiers become strangers in their homes. Once in combat switchingfocus back to family matters is quite complex. The soldiers are morelikely to go back to war than stay at home. Home is too boring forthem to stay. How they handle things replicates war. For instance, asthe narrator goes over to kill his dog, he shoots like an enemy atwar [CITATION Phi14 p 45 l 1033 ].

Anothertypical behavior while on deployment soldiers treat each otherharshly than normal. They do not treat one another gently or kindly.Either using harsh words or unkind gestures, but most of them do notcare. They are used to such treatment and behavior. However, whenthey come home, these aspects remain.

Leavingin constant fear among other stresses, they become harsh to theirfamilies. As illustrated in the Frago, the narrator yells at his wifeunwillingly. Most of them feel unwanted after the war. This isbecause the family grows independently, doing things by themselvesand a returning soldier does not acclimatize to the changes. Suchfeeling generates anger which can be detrimental to the relatives [CITATION Phi14 p 65 l 1033 ].

Thesoldiers find it hard to settle at home. In one of the stories i.e.“Unless It`s a Sucking Chest Wound,” the relator, a Marine whohas just returned home from Iraq and is out of service decides tojoin the New York Law School. The narrator’s aim is to join a lesspaying career with limited public interest. Though his friends try todiscourage him, the narrator is not willing to alter the decision.

Fearis another common concept among combatants. Though the soldiers areback home, all they can think about is war. The soldiers live in acondition regarded as Orange. In this state, soldiers know that atany moment one of them could be killed either by a sniper, I.E.D., orroadside bombs. It keeps them on constant guard for any attack, boobytrap, or ambush. Some soldiers live in this state when they come backfrom combat. The fear that an attack may happen anytime does notleave them. It is even harder when they realize they have no weapons.They do not see or hear like before. Their brain chemistry isaltered. Walking in the streets probably to shop among otheractivities becomes difficult [CITATION Phi14 p 75 l 1033 ].

Returneesface both emotional and physical challenges. Psychological aspectsinclude worry, emotional numbness, intense guilt, and depression.Anhedonia, which is typified by loss of interest in activities thatused to be enjoyable, is another common ailment. Physical challengesinclude high amounts of respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal,and neurological disorders. States of tension, worry, difficultysleeping, depression and guilt are some of the physical ailments.

Thereturnees are also characterized by nightmares, repetitivedistressing images, flashbacks, physical sensations like trembling,nausea, sweating, and pain. Apart from that, they have consistentnegative thoughts on their experience. They always ask themselvesqueries that prevent accepting the situations. All these aspects makeit hard for them to relate well with their families. Depending on theextent of stress, most of the veterans do not survive with theirfamilies [CITATION USD161 p 1 l 1033 ].

TheMarines find it hard to live with the loss of a comrade at war. Theycan blame themselves even after going back home. For instance, in“After Action Report,” one soldier takes claim for hiscompatriot’s execution, and then attempts to find a way of livingwith it. In “Ten Kliks South,” a weaponry man contemplates hisresponsibility for the demises of noncombatants destroyed by roundsthat he assisted in launching. However, in “Prayer in the Furnace,”an irritated soldier does not care about the demises of Iraqis hehates them with passion. Instead, his query is whether his actionshas gotten any of his colleagues killed.

Thisidea is also augmented by the protagonist in “Unless It’s aSucking Chest Wound.” He states that he had never related withanyone among the five killed soldiers on a personal level. Therefore,their deaths induced a patriotic feeling rather than self-doubt andself-loathing affecting some of the Marines. Soldiers have to controltheir emotions as much as possible.

Someopt to keep a small circle of friends. Therefore, when a fellowsoldier is killed and is not among his buddies, they only have afeeling of patriotic pride. It is a mechanism used to reducedistressing moments. Such behaviors are also practiced at home aftercombat. The returnees do not relate to most of the people. They seemdisjointed with their only remedy being joining colleagues atdrinking joints [CITATION Phi14 p 57 l 1033 ].

Inbattle, militaries have to blackout feelings that do not openly servetheir survival. In that regard, features of grief, gentle humor, andsweetness are blacked out. They do not have time to grief even if oneof them is killed. This is extremely disturbing to families when thecombatants come back home and portray ice-cold behaviors. They appearto be made entirely of ice. However, it is not their wish to beice-cold. Instead, their adaptation to block emotions that do notnecessarily serve survival are persistent in them. They can go tofunerals and feel nothing completely. They do not shed a tear orappear disgruntled by the occurrences [CITATION Phi14 p 26 l 1033 ].

Anothercommon behavior of returnees is alcohol abuse. It is a prevalentthing among Army veterans. Alcohol abuse begins with a desperate needto get sleep. Since most of them live in fear, sleep is a preciouscommodity they lack. Most of them resort to alcohol use to stimulatesleep. However, it does not help since most of them bounce awakefrequently. It also instigates some irritating behavior affecting thefamilies in the process. Alcohol addiction is quite predominant amongthe combatants to the disadvantage of the relatives [CITATION Phi14 p 68 l 1033 ].

Socialisolation makes life at home and deployment entirely different. Thereturning soldiers tend to be socially isolated. If they lose theability to control anger, the family tends to suffer. In manyinstances, they do not intentionally cause hurt however, theirprevious undertakings make them irrational. Most of them have thepropensity to hide from the rest of the family. They opt to live inbasements to prevent themselves from harming the rest.

Thenarrator in FRAGO unintentionally causes harm to his wife. Heappeared socially distraught and distanced from the wife. Others mayseem to be emotionally numb. They have no idea how to relate topeople. The comprehension between war returnees and civilians becomesdifficult leaving most of them in isolation. Another example isRodriguez who is a Marine. He goes to the battalion’s chaplainworrying that the company, in obscurity and distress of fighting, haslost restriction of fighting, killing insurgents and civilians alike.He worries for a reason. Killing Iraqis was the only thing he couldthink about. Anything else apart from killing was numb. If he is notdestroying the Hajis, then everything else is wastage of time.

Familiesface a hard task of relating to people who can only think aboutkilling. Life at home becomes boring since they do not seem to do anyconstructive thing like protecting their country. As the narrator inFRAGO states, the civilians have no idea what soldiers go through toprotect them. Such notions create a gap between the combatants andthe civilians. Achieving a peaceful family becomes difficult in suchsituations. The combatants do not open up to their families [CITATION Phi14 p 86 l 1033 ].


Transitioningfrom high-stress war zones to a quiet atmosphere at home is one themost sensitive portions of military service. As entailed in the bookdeployment, soldiers face numerous stressful events that affect themtremendously. They lose close friends in dreadful attacks as othersget injured. At war, they are forced to block emotions that do notdirectly correlate with success in war. For instance, they desistfrom grief, gentle humor or sweetness.

Mostof their talk is unkind, and they are used to it. However, when theycome back home, transitioning to the new environment becomesdifficult. They, therefore, unintentionally talk rudely their spousesas well as other relatives. Most of them do not realize any fault atthat instance. Some family members may accuse them of being ice-cold.

Theveterans also find it uncomfortable sitting around without doinganything constructive. In other words, they are not on the frontlineprotecting their country. Most find it boring just to sit aroundwithout a weapon. They are also in the orange state whereby they feelendangered. In this condition, the chemistry of the mind is altered,and a soldier knows that in any time, one of them will be killed.Even when they go out for shopping, most of them are on the lookout.All these aspects create a division between the civilians and thereturning combatants. They do not seem to think civilians care aboutsoldiers at war. Such behaviors lead them to isolation.

Asearlier portrayed, the soldiers develop some features while at war.They use different mechanisms to hide their fear. In a good day forthem, no one is killed. The hiding of feelings for an extended periodresults in emotional numbness. Apart from the numbness affectingtheir families, it leads to psychological disorders. As evidenced bythe country’s statistics, most of the patients suffering fromPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTDs) are veteran soldiers. Theveterans are affected by their past experiences in war and thinktheir homes are far much changed to accommodate them.


Klay, Phil. Redeployment. Penguin Press, 2014. Print.

US Department of Veteran Affairs. PTSD: National Center for PTSD. 26 May 2016. &lt

Instructor`s name


Angelsin America

TonyKushner wrote Angelsin Americaminiseries. It was first opened as a play in 1993 on Broadway. Themovie explores numerous themes including Reaganism, Mormonism, andgay rights, Anti-Semitism, HIV/AIDS and Lavender Scares among others.It consists of two portions, namely Perestroika Angels in America andMillennium Approaches. It dwells on the historical, spiritual, death,and political aspects. Angelsin Americaembodies an act of conflict and probes the audience if change canhappen. This query sets the whole novel’s perception of modernaudiences having the hindsight benefit. As viewers, we have to reckonwith Reagan’s legacy. This particular paper will dwell on HIVduring the 1980s. During this period, HIV became an epidemic forcingcommunity to come together in efforts to eliminate it.

Theplot involves Prior Walter who had been diagnosed with HIV. When hislover Louis Ironson realizes this, he leaves him for Joe Pitt. JoePitt was a Republican lawyer in charge of Roy Cohn, a successful The character of Roy Cohn is a real-life story depictingthe person who died in 1986 from AIDS. Though Joe Pitt is married toHarper, he struggles to identify himself as gay. When her wifediscovers the same, she goes through a nervous breakdown stimulatedby her addiction to pills. Roy Cohn later is diagnosed with the HIVand the ghost of Ethel Rosenberg is fixated throughout his entirelife. An Angel visits Walter declaring him a prophet. The audience isforced to believe that God had left His Angels in Heaven to stayamongst His human creation regardless of their tendency fordestruction and cruelty (Kushner).

MarginalizedGroups as Courses of Disease

Thefilm opens up the perception of New York City and San Francisco,which have specific importance regarding the gay rights activism.Additionally, it is the place where AIDS became apparent. As perAVERT, AIDS was first realized in the U.S. during the 1980s wherebyseveral gay people in California and New York state developed rarecancers and infections. The two cities are also predominant regardingthe immigrant movement to the U.S. In the early 20th century, manypeople including the European Jews migrated to the United States. Itis probably the time Louis’ grandmother, Sarah Ironson made thejourney. The foreigners were often associated to spread of diseaseslike trachoma, typhus, tuberculosis, and cholera (Kraut 123). Depotslike Angel Island in San Francisco and Ellis Island in New York wereadopted by the federal government to screen the migrants. The UnitedStates natives lived in fear of foreign contamination and brandedcertain migrant groups as carriers of various diseases (Kraut 125).As stated by Roy Cohn, American’s had no use for the sick. Fallingill in America was the worst thing that could happen to an individualsince one would be abandoned. The country did not suit the infirm.

Utilizationof the historical lens to display how marginalized groups are oftenaccused as carriers of calamities plays a vital part in setting theentire series. The viewers can realize the parallels concerningmarginalized groups and HIV/AIDS victimhood. Jan Grover rightlysuggests that it is vital to check the links between Aids victimhoodand the poor and marginalized groups, who suffer frominstitutionalized powerlessness, a fault for their condition, and theobjectification curse (Grover 17).

AIDSand Homosexuality

TheGovernment’s reaction to the HIV/AIDS epidemic was based on theircomprehension of homosexuality. Homosexuality as an immoral act orsin has both political and social implications. The word homosexualdoes neither define the individual’s sex nor the partner’s.Similarly, the word AIDS does not imply one has acquired the disease.Even in the modern world, the two words elicit negative stereotypesthat are illustrated in the Angelsin America.The different characters within the film bring to light thestereotypes and people’s perceptions of the same. The viewers canclearly realize how these terms are infused with political and socialmeanings thereby giving them physical, material, and metaphoricalsignificance.

RoyCohn’s character outlines several consequences related tohomosexuals and AIDS. For instance, when the doctor tells Cohn he hasAIDS, he completely disagrees, stating that AIDS is a disease of thehomosexuals. Therefore, telling him he has AIDS is depicting he ishomosexual. The perception as a homosexual would deprive him thepublic identity that he strived to attain. He further describeshomosexuals as people who have no influence on political matters andlack clout (Bronski 59).

DescribingAIDS as a homosexual disease, Cohn exemplifies the homophobicdiscourse about the ailment. It stigmatizes gays through theinsinuation they have AIDS. This assumption that AIDS was a gayailment was detrimental to people who got infected. They were allperceived as gays. Therefore, such group would face two implications,specifically diagnosis of AIDS and oust as gay. It completelysilenced heterosexual persons living with the disease. Homosexualitybecame a barrier to accessing economic, social, and politicalopportunities, resulting in the lack of treatment for HIV/AIDS. Itwas, therefore, not a disease someone as important as Cohn couldhave. Prior Walter could not access the same facilities as Cohn did,though they all resided in New York City. Though Cohn was so high inthe food chain and was able to coerce his doctor to diagnose him withliver cancer instead of AIDS, he was not immune from it (Fisher 46).

Asascribed by Bocera,Angels in Americaqueries us on the appropriate human behavior during the Americansocial history, where Aids is still viewed and handled politically asa gay ailment (Fisher 47). Bocera is insinuating that AIDs is morethan just a disease. Viewers can realize the different perceptionsdisplaying the fact that cultural fabrications are more than justideologies with a figurative existence. Instead, they possessphysical realities as portrayed in the bodies of the cast within thefilm. Audiences can relate to how conceptualization of the ailmentinfluences the government’s reactions as well as the medicalsociety and the kind of care availed to the infected people. Theviewers can also see the different ways the individuals are oppressedand discriminated against in their daily lives. The notions on AIDSand homosexuality determine the kind of treatment Walter gets. Theyalso influence the way his loved ones relate with him (Fisher 55).

Tracingback to the journal publications and newspapers about AIDS in theearly 80’s, a number of conceptualizations emerge. From thebeginning, there was prevalent fright of infection since AIDS wasconstrued as a deadly disease that endangered the human species.People also perceived it as a “gay infection” meant to punishsexually abnormal behaviors. The different typecasts, stigma, andconceptualizations about AIDS and homosexuality were entrenched inthe public mind. This series adequately addresses the divergentconceptions related to identity and the ailment.


Angels in America. Dir. Tony Kushner. Perf. Prior Walter. 1991.

Bronski, Michael. &quotReview: Angels in America. Cineaste 29.&quot (2004): 57-59. Document.

Fisher, James. &quotAngels in America. Part II. Perestroika.&quot Theatre Journal 47.2, Gay and Lesbian Queeries (1995). Document.

Grover, Jan Zita. &quotCultural Analysis/Cultural Activism.&quot (1987): 17-30. Document.

Kraut, Alan. &quotImmigration, Ethnicity, and the Pandemic.&quot 2010. Document.

Instructor`s name



Theprogressives consisted of a group of people who were dedicated toreforming the United States in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Theera was termed as progressivism and was meant to respond to theeconomic and social issues emanating from industrialization withinAmerica. As stated by Robert Higgs, the period was a “Bridge toRecent Times.” This is because approaches toward proper governmentroles were moving from the partial kind favored during the 19thcentury to the expounded ones preferred in the 20th century [CITATION Bue05 p 43 l 1033 ].The hugechanges resulting from industrialization like railroads, largecorporations, and corruption in politics stimulated progressivism.Even in the 21st century, progressives champion social justice andenvironmentalism [CITATION Bue05 p 43 l 1033 ].

Variousstudies as well as leading reformers in this period emphasized thepolitical and economic reform actions. The economic transformationsinvolved expounded directives, heightened antitrust movement,progress of the social insurance agendas, and an income tax. Thechange to “direct democracy” throughout the period led toprofessionalized government, empowerment of the voters regardingelections and recalling of officials in office. Women were also giventhe power to vote and the populations were provided a chance forreferenda where people could vote on particular issues. Thereformists proposed actions to eliminate ills that were engraved inthe political system [CITATION Pri08 p 54 l 1033 ].

Duringthe gilded era defined by Mark Twain, the country’s system lookedappealing from the outside but corrupt beneath. It was an era ofguile and greed: corporate buccaneers, vulgar display, ravenousrobber barons, unethical business activities, unscrupulousspeculators, and scandal-plagued politics (Warner 69). As Mark Twainaffirms, the period can be caricatured as conspicuous consumption,unfettered capitalism and corruption-ravaged. Racial tensions,discontent among employees as well as the unemployed, militancy amongthe farmers, and labor violence were entrenched in the country.

Manyfarmers opted to join the Populist Party after being burdened bydebts and decreasing farm prices. The party championed for a rise inthe amounts of cash being circulated, government assistance tofarmers regarding payment of loans, graduated income tax, and tariffreductions. However, the period also saw a rise in developmentalprojects. For instance, the transport and communication systemdeveloped, corporations became dominant, and the managerial aspectswere revolutionized (Warner 76).

PolicyChanges of the Progressive period and their Importance

Theera experienced changes initiated by the federal government. Thegovernment increased the regulations involving interstate commerceand established a central bank. It then instigated the application ofantitrust policies in large-scale businesses. On the other hand, theState governments stretched the rules involving labor and productmarkets before establishing fresh social insurance forms.

Thelocal governments stretched the ownership and policies pertainingutilities and constructed numerous public health amenities. In theGilded era, reforms focused on avoiding corruption by appointing theright individuals. However, the changes were not substantial sincetaxes continued to increase as reformers realized it was hard toavoid the administrative issues. In that respect, apart from focusingon moral inadequacies among administrators and city politicians, theprogressive resolutions restructured city governments (Fishback 62).

Citieswere commissioned by the state administrations that continued towatch over their affairs. Activists consequently had to instigatechange in state legislatures. Successes over local leaders werereplicated in state legislation and the cronies involved.Progressives, hence, pushed for home policies to give the cities moreautonomy in their fiscal affairs as well as administration (Fishback56).

Thereformers wanted to separate administration from politics. For thisreason, citywide elections were introduced as many other officesbecame appointive. The measures reduced corruption significantly. Thereforms also introduced city managers who were adopted across variouscities. The terms “economic and effective” administration managedby “professionals” were commonly utilized by Progressives tochampion change in the business perspectives. The reformist came upwith fresh budgeting and accounting mechanisms, inventory controls,as well as time and motion studies [CITATION Bue05 p 165 l 1033 ].

Theproposals made by the progressives changed the nations in varioussections. The income tax system was one of the sections that werealtered. Before the reforms were adopted, a small percentage of thepublic paid income taxes. However, the rates increased substantiallyand by 2002, they were around eight times higher. The legal relationsbetween the workers and employers also changed for the better. Hence,the workers were safer under the new regulations.

Theprogressive era made the United States a gentler nation. Corruptionlevels diminished, workers were more protected, and the electoralvote became vital. The involvement of women also shows thegentleness. This era initiated a movement that championed womenempowerment. They were now allowed to participate in elections andother leadership positions. The citizens were also mandated to recallany elected office they deemed inefficient. In general, the UnitedStates became kinder regarding employees, women, and civil rightsamong others [CITATION Cha00 p 136 l 1033 ].

Historianssuch as Alonzo Hamby describe the progressive era as a politicalmovement that generated fresh ideas and offered solutions tomodernization related issues. The city manager is one example thatemanated from progressive policies. The city managers involved a setof engineers tasked with running the daily affairs of the citygovernments. The progressives called for an administration governedby professionals. These professionals are evident even in the currentadministration [CITATION Cha00 p 136 l 1033 ].


Buenker, John D, and Joseph Buenker.&nbspEncyclopedia of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2005. Print.

Fishback, Price V. M.&nbspGovernment and the American Economy: A New History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. Internet resource.

Twain, Mark, and Charles D. Warner.&nbspThe Gilded Age: A Tale of Today. New York: Trident Press, 1964. Print.

Whiteclay, Chambers and John. The Tyranny of Change: America in the Progressive Era, The Tyranny of Change: America in the Progressive Era, 2000. Print.

Instructor`s name


LongTerm Memory

Memoryis defined as the ability to integrate, store and retrieveinformation. is, therefore, an essential part of human life. In theabsence of memory, people cannot operate in the present, think aboutthe future or even make reference regarding historical events. Also,without memory, we cannot have the ability to plan or learn anything.Long term memory is a mode of permanent or lasting storage,management, and retrieval of information. Such types of memory attimes endure even for a lifetime [CITATION Sau10 p 157 l 1033 ].

Criticismof Memory Experiments

Aconsiderable number of experiments have been done concerninginformation storage in the past, and more are still taking place.Participants are usually subjected to tasks that require recallingwords, numbers or events. Due to the artificial setting of thelaboratory environment, there the concerns have raised that suchexperiments have a limited ecological validity. Similarly, the eventsthat people are subjected to in the operation differ to aconsiderable extent from what happens in the real-life situation [CITATION Sau10 p 48 l 1033 ].Despite all these, the research studies have helped researchers tocome up with relevant informationon the subject of memory.


Intheory, the capacity of having long term memory might attainimmeasurable levels. However, the major constraint is that memory isbased on accessibility of information rather than availability. Theduration of recall may range from a few minutes to a lifetimedepending on various factors. There are two primary encoding types,and they include semantic and visual modes. Semantic mode entailsmeanings of things while the optical mode is based in pictorial andsometimes acoustic (sound). This paper looks at the research studiesdone previously and the relevant inferences observed.

Ina study done by Bahrick and Wittinger,a phenomenon termed as very long term memory (VLTM) was investigated(Bahrick and Wittinger78).In this study, 400 participants aged between 17 and 74 years wereselected and subjected to the experiment. The tests that were presentincluded a free recall test, which required participants to rememberthe names of individuals in a graduate class and an image recognitiontest composed of 50 pictures. Additionally, there was also arecollection name test for former schoolmates. The outcome of theresults indicated that study participants tested within 15 yearspost-graduation were close to 90% accurate in remembering the namesas well as the faces. In a span of 48 years, the accuracy levelreduced to 80% for verbal recall and 70% for visual. Free recallshowed a worse scenario where after 15 years, 60% accuracy whileafter 48 years, it was a mere 30%.

Analmost similar postulation was done to determine the differencesbetween episodic, semantic and procedural memory. The proposal iswidely considered as one of the earliest yet the most influentialdistinction of long-term memory ever tabled. Apparently, the proposalsuggested that procedural memory is an essential part of thelong-term memory, responsible for realizing how thing are done forinstance driving skills. This type of memory is unconscious andautomatic, although it is not considered declarative. On the otherhand, semantic memory is part of the long-term memory which isessential for storing general information concerning the world. Suchthings include the meaning of words and general knowledge such asbeing able to know that the Capital City of United States isWashington D.C. unlike procedural memory, this type involvesconsciousness, and it is declarative as well. Lastly, episodic memoryis important in the storage of events or happenings that have beenexperienced. It is similar to semantic memory as it involves both theconscious and it is declarative. An example of this type of long-termmemory is the ability to remember the first day of school or thefirst visit to a park [CITATION ETu72 p 18 l 1033 ].

Adistinct dissimilarity between declarative and procedural memory waslater discovered. As such, procedural knowledge is concerned withknowing how to do certain things albeit with skill involvement, forinstance, playing the keyboard, or organ, bicycle riding, and othermotor skills. On the contrary, declarative knowledge requires acertain level of conscious effort to recall information such as thenames of cities, birthdays, animals and so on.

Theseearly research studies and proposals have facilitated more insightregarding long term memory more so on patients who suffer fromamnesia. Usually, amnesic patients experience a lot of difficulty inrecalling episodic and semantic information. However, the events,knowledge, and information that was acquired before the start of thecondition have a tendency to remain intact. However, they cannot beable to store new memories, that is, the ability to maintaindeclarative information becomes distorted [CITATION Sau10 p 98 l 1033 ].


Longterm memory is an essential part of the human life. Its importance inhow we operate cannot be underestimated. The early studies andtheories played a vital role in the establishment of a base in whichother studies could take place. However, in-depth research andexperiments concerning declarative and procedural memory have notbeen fully described. More work and analyses need to be done puttingin mind the importance of randomized controlled trials and improvingthe ecological validity.


Bahrick, H. P., Bahrick, P. O., &amp Wittinger, R. P. &quotFifty years of memory for names and faces: a cross-sectional approach.&quot Journal of Experimental Psychology (1975): 54-75. Document.

McLeod, Saul. &quotLong Term Memory.&quot 2010. Simply Psychology. Document. 28 July 2016.

Tulving, E. &quotEpisodic and semantic memory.&quot Donaldson, E. Tulving &amp W. Organization of Memory. New York: Academic Press, 1972. 381–403. Print.

Instructor`s Name

NameInstructor’s NameCourse Date


Globalwarming is a critical environmental challenge that the world iffacing today. It is a direct outcome of human activities, and itsimpacts have already been experienced in various parts of the worldin the form of storms, rise in sea level and floods among others. Theleading cause of this phenomenon is greenhouse gas emissions fromcombustion of fossil fuels. The global average temperature isconsidered to be above the pre-industrial level, and a furtherincrease could lead be catastrophic (IPCC special report 1).Therefore, this calls for working initiatives to reduce globalwarming. This can be done by switching from fossil energy torenewable energy, which is a key solution to the current problem ofglobal warming.

Combustionof carbon fuels for electricity, transport, and heating is consideredthe largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the world. Thesegasses collect in the atmosphere and trap heat from the sun leadingto disruptive changes in natural phenomena. In that regard, mostintervention efforts directed towards controlling global warmingtarget human activities that add to the emission of greenhousegasses. For that reason, renewable energy is the ideal alternative tothe conventional sources of energy. Renewable energy has beenregarded a major solution to climate change (Edenhofer et al., 56).As such, the world should consider adoption of carbon-free sources ofenergy for its heating, lighting, and transport needs. Manyenvironmental scientists have regarded this move perfect.

Themain objective in switching from fossil fuels to carbon-free sourcesof energy is to create a carbon-free environment. The renewableenergy sector is undergoing gradual changes, but given the globalwarming crises, more efforts should be directed towards a drastictransformation in the energy sector. This will help in battling themenace associated with global warming that seeks to plummet the worldeconomy amid globalization and industrialization efforts (Twidell15). Reducing the amount of emissions into the atmosphere is acollective responsibility to all human beings. However, leaving it atthat may not make any difference because only a few people willcomply with the obligation to take care of the environment.Therefore, shifting to renewable energy sources can make a bigdifference because the level of emissions can reduce or stop. Renewable energy comprises of naturally occurring energysources that can be re-used without depletion. Examples include thewind, hydro, steam and solar energy among others. To combat theproblem of global warming effectively, the global averagetemperatures should be kept low (Edenhofer et al., 54). To achievethis, there should be prior planning on the best strategies totransform the use of energy in the industrial sector. A well-plannedand well-targeted implementation plan can greatly reduce thedependence on fossil fuels. The greatest advantage ofrenewable sources of energy is that they guarantee energy securityonce adopted, unlike fossil fuels, which become depleted over time.Renewable energy sources such as the wind, bio-fuels, and solar powerare increasingly being preferred as energy alternatives (IPCC specialreport 2). For instance, there are numerous hybrid electric cars inthe market today, and many hydropower-generating plants, which is aconfirmation that renewable energy can work. In the increasinglygrowing awareness campaigns on the essence of environmentalconservation, renewable energy is deemed pertinent in combatingglobal warming. This is because these energy sources do not emit anygreenhouse gases that pollute the air. Global warming islargely a result of human activities. Industrialization is among theleading causes of greenhouse gas emissions because of increasedcombustion of carbon-laden fuels. There needs to be increased effortsto fight this global environmental challenge, and switching torenewable sources of energy is the ideal solution. This is becauserenewable sources of energy can be re-used and they do not emitgreenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Similarly, they guaranteeenergy security, and they have been proved to work. Therefore,governments need to invest more in renewable energy technologies toreduce the burden of emissions into the atmosphere.


Edenhofer,Ottmar, et al., eds.&nbspRenewableenergy sources and climate change mitigation: Special report of theintergovernmental panel on climate change.Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Mitigation,Climate Change. &quotIPCC special report on renewable energy sourcesand climate change mitigation.&quot (2011).

Twidell,John, and Tony Weir.&nbspRenewableenergy resources.Routledge, 2015.

Instructor`s name


InWilla Cather’s short story, Paul is a young man in high school whohas been experiencing troubles in his life. As such, the boy had arough time beginning with the loss of his mother when he was a child.He lives with his father and sisters. The story starts with theprocess of his suspension and the members of the schooladministration condemn him harshly. However, when they later discoverthat his mother had passed away, they become guilty. As an usher atCarnegie Hall, Paul does a good job and he is intrigued by thepaintings in the hall. He is also captivated by the symphony thatplays to the extent that he follows the star to her place. Despitesome instances of a calm and relaxing environment, Paul does not likethe scenery. It is evident that the young man derives pleasure frommusic and theater arts. As the story progresses, Paul gets a job andmanages to steal 1000 dollars which he spends enjoying the views offlowers and hotel dining and listening to music as orchestras play.At this point, he seems content with life until the time he discoversthat his theft has been found. Ultimately, Paul commits suicide byjumping in front of a moving train. Interestingly, his last thoughtsare directed to regretting his early death and the places he willneither be able to visit nor to see [ CITATION Jor12 l 1033 ].

OscarWilde is a novelist, a poet and playwright and his aestheticprinciples have been widely analyzed in the literature. Even thoughhe was not the person who began this philosophy, his works helped inshaping the image of aesthetes up to date. Apparently, Wildedistanced himself from morals and political elements and theireffects toward art. In other words, one of his principles was focusedon ensuring that morals did not affect the aesthetic nature of anyart. Similarly, Paul’s story conforms to this policy since hisattraction to beauty is emphasized more than his theft. The readersare more captivated by his love for art and music and feel sorry forhis demise [ CITATION Sar11 l 1033 ].

Wildealso presented an aspect of liberating art from the character itself.Apparently, art is represented as innocent and beautiful. From hisworks, Wilde seems to indicate that the main features of art as beingattractive, captivating and blameless. This means that the work ofart cannot easily be damaged by criticism directed at a portrait.Likewise, in this short story, we can be able to see that the authordepicts Paul’s love for music, theater, and paintings as theprimary focus of interest. Despite his wrongdoings, the blame tendsto be redirected to the young man’s critics who prevent him fromenjoying what he likes. Also, his theft is not attributed to themusic and beautiful sceneries or performances [ CITATION Mat03 l 1033 ].

Thereare other principles shown by Wilde that insist on the importance ofart in influencing the certain emotions. This means that any form orart, whether in the form of sound, picture or theater, is capable ofproducing feelings that ultimately affect the behavior of a person.This is true for Paul. His love for things that have aesthetic valuepushed him to have the urge to taste it all. He spends most of thestolen money to enjoy serene sceneries and music presentations.Oddly, his last thoughts were also those of imagining how much he wasgoing to miss rather than the loss of his life [ CITATION Sar11 l 1033 ].The intensity of motionsbrought about by beholding art cannot be efficiently described. It issomething that can only be appreciated by the one who is experiencingthe emotion.

Thereis one aspect that may differ a little bit between Wilde’sprinciples and the Short story by Willa Cather. While Wilde expresslyinsists that aesthesis is justified even if it is consideredoffensive by others. This slight dissimilarity can be seen wherebyWilde in his writings suggests that his homosexual depictions shouldnot be used as a criteria for criticizing the work. This sentimenttends to indicate that whether the information in literature isoffensive or not to the public, the focus should be maintained uponthe significance of the art and not the appeal to the masses. On thecontrary, Paul’s story does not portray a sense of publicunpleasant aspects except for his demeanor which is not rare for mostpeople. Social norms are not bypassed by his personality andcharacter [ CITATION Mat03 l 1033 ].

Basedon the above analysis, it is evident that most of the aspects of thestory and the aesthetic principles appear to corroborate. First andforemost, in both cases, art is treated as a separate entity frommorality. Therefore, we cannot appreciate art if it is judged basedon its appealing effect to individuals in the society. Secondly, artplays a major role in emotions and the behavior. We can thereforeconfidently conclude that the short story by Willa Cather does notsufficiently refute all the Oscar Wilde’s aesthetic principlesexcept for the offensive nature of art to the society.


Gustafsson, Sara. &quotAesthetic Principles in Oscar Wilde‟s The Picture of Dorian Gray.&quot Engelska (2011): 61-90. Document.

Lee, Jordan. &quotPaul’s Case: A Study in Temperament .&quot 9 May 2012. Leejor. 29 July 2016.

Matsuoka, Mitsuharu. &quotAestheticism and Social Anxiety in The Picture of Dorian Gray.&quot Journal of Aesthetic Education (2003): 77-100. Document.

Instructor`s name


Theempiricism concept suggests that the sense of experience is thesource of all knowledge. The theory accentuates the functionexperience and evidence play, mainly sensory insight, in thedevelopment of ideas. Empiricists argue that human knowledge can onlybe based on experience. In other words, the perception that humanminds are born with ideas and not blank is rather untrue. This theorycontrasts rationalism that suggests that the mind apprehends factsdirectly, without the need of senses as a medium. Empiricism wasmainly stimulated during the 17th and 18th centuries by the risingexperimental science. George Berkeley, David Hume, and John Locke areaccredited to the expounded versions of this theory. The wordempiricism emanates from the Greek term “experience.” Empiricalalso means experiment or observation methods. In that respect, thisapproach is mainly based on experience and observation as a means ofgaining knowledge [CITATION Ast12 p 47 l 1033 ].

Inductivismtheory suggests that individuals gain scientific knowledge throughinduction. In other words, the knowledge is typically derived frominduction. Sir Francis Bacon is accredited to the emergence of thistheory during the 17th century. According to his novel approach,people observe nature, propose a concept to generalize the observedpatterns, confirms the pattern through several observations, and thenventures into a modest wider law. After venturing, an individual canestablish the law by making several other observations and in theprocess neglecting disconfirmed laws. Though the rules can growbroader, they never exceed careful and extensive observation.Proponents of the Inductivism theory have tried to expound on thenovel ideology to discredit the rationalism concept [CITATION Tel12 p 35 l 1033 ].

Asper the descriptions above, the two theories have a lot in common.For instance, they all suggest knowledge is attained throughconsistent observation, unlike rationalism that states otherwise.However, Edward Hallett Carr was one of the major opponents of theempiricism theory within historiography. He championed rationalism inhistoriography disregarding the notions entailed in empiricism. Onthe other hand, Stephen Jay Gould rejected the Inductivist assertionsadopting pluralism. In his works, Gould combined several works fromdifferent scholars to ascertain the most logical way of describingevolution. This paper will assess the common aspects entailed inempiricism and inductivism. It is also vital to look at the differentideologies suggested by Gould and Carr on their respective theories.Most of the empirical studies done during the 17th or even 18thcenturies are discredited by recent scholars based on time andresources. However, current researchers still utilize the ancientstudies as a bedrock to new ventures. In that regard, the twotheories will be compared since their inception and applicability tothe current populations. This paper will also strive to examine thediffering factors between this theory. In most cases, they variedregarding applicability. For instance, Carr suggests that theEmpiricism is not practical within the historiography field.

Commonaspects in Inductivism and Empiricism

Empiricismis regarded as a naïve stage of Inductivism. In other words, the twotheories correlate regarding how knowledge is gained. For instance,empiricists are confident that the perception of sense is key toacquiring knowledge. As illustrated by John Locke, ideas can beclassified into two portions i.e. simple and complex. The simpleconcepts are founded on views such as shape, color, and size amongothers. On the other hand, complex notions are based on a combinationof simple thoughts. The concept rightly correlates to Inductivism,which purports that consistent scrutiny of simple patterns developscomplex ones that can only be comprehended through constantobservations. It suggests that people become knowledgeable throughcontinuous observations

Anothercommon concept entails perception of experience. Both theoriessuggest that ideas can only be attained through experience and notinnate thoughts. Empiricists discard the notion of natural knowledgeas misleading. This is because, for instance, if kids were born withthis knowledge, why is it not shown? Why do infants learn to talk orwalk if they had the knowledge since birth? It is only throughexperience that we get to have simple ideas that can be combined toform complex ones. It is, therefore, misguiding to assume we are bornwith this knowledge, yet we require time to learn and acquire it [CITATION Ast12 p 76 l 1033 ].

Anotherkey concept linking the two ideologies is the induction feature. Noteverything is proven. In other words, many things are leftinconclusive due to the varying perceptions amongst us. For instance,we acclimatize to things by utilizing the sense perception. We canaffirm that a chalkboard is green, or even the walls are white, butno conclusive opinions can be drawn from the objects themselves. Inother words, our senses enable us to state the color of an object,yet it cannot be affirmed that the object agrees. As suggested bythis notion, we acquire this knowledge through induction and instillit within our brains. It is only through induction that peoplecomprehend the various objects and actions among other aspects.Progressive acquisition of such knowledge enables people to perceivethings the way they are. However, no conclusive fact can evidence thesame [ CITATION Tel12 l 1033 ].

Carr’sPerception of History and Empiricism

Carrsuggested that historians were quite biased in their assertions offacts. Some of his ideologies were contentious especially promotingrelativism and discarding contingency among other historical factsthat were vital. In his sentiments, he defines what empiricistsviewed as the relation between historians and facts. Historycomprises of a quantity of affirmed facts. The evidence is accessibleto all historians in inscriptions and documents among other avenues.The historians, on the other hand, collect the information andinterpret them according to their preferences. In that respect, thefacts can be obtained from the same source, but interpreteddifferently by the historians. They find the facts and then shiftinterpretations. Carr termed this as a commonsense perception ofhistory [CITATION Gra08 p 97 l 1033 ].

Carr’sunraveling of the empiricist view pertains in the notion on facts. Asperceived by empiricism, facts have the propensity to speak forthemselves. This means facts do not need elaboration since they areobviously true. However, Carr discredits this notion suggesting thatthe facts are molded by what historians think of them. The historiansare selective on what to relay and what to leave. In that regard,they determine what is published to the populations. Historical factscannot exist independently and objectively without interpretationsfrom the historians. Therefore, empiricist notions can neither beproven nor disregarded since they are subject to manipulation.According to Carr, sources are not pure. Instead, they have beenchosen whether consciously or unconsciously to suit the individualscholar. For instance, the assertion of ancient Greece. The5th-century view of Greece is primarily founded on a small group ofpersons within Athens. The current opinion of the ancient Greecerelies on what the few people saw. Even though the key bits have beenlost, our picture of the city of Athens is still dependent on the fewindividuals. Carr attempts to discredit historical facts since theywere predetermined and preselected according to the historians.Whatever they felt would be worth preserving is what they shared. Inanother view on medieval studies, Carr suggests that chroniclers havechosen all the facts people have of medieval history over thedifferent generations. These were professionals who dwelled onideologies and practice of spirituality, thereby recording vitalaspects related to it. In that regard, whatever we read is notfactual. Instead, these are a series of acknowledged judgments. Insome way, this sentiment correlates with empiricism regarding ouracuities of objects. The way objects are currently viewed depends onthe historical insights of the same [ CITATION Gra08 l 1033 ].

Onecore reason empiricist opinions stood was the fact that scholars didnot encounter the profusion of documents. Unlike the ancientresearchers, modern scholars have to discover relevant facts andrelate them to history discarding the irrelevant facts. Carr’sopinions deemed the antique facts as inconclusive and lacked depth.In his relativism approach, Carr suggested that people comprehend tosomething by comparing it to another one. In other words, individualscan only gather knowledge by making comparisons of facts. Drawn fromEinstein’s ideology, the facts changed depending on the observer’sposition. Though empiricists think knowledge can only be gainedthrough experience, relativism suggests that it can be acquiredthrough comparison of facts. It created a huge wedge betweeninterpretation and fact. The way people interpret facts is founded oncomparisons and not experience [CITATION Gra08 p 34 l 1033 ].

Ingeneral, Carr does not entirely discredit the historical mechanismsutilized by empiricists. He also does not suggest the concept ofobjectivity must be phased out completely. However, the conceptionthat facts were entirely authoritative as entailed in the empiricistnotion of objectivity were contentious as per Carr. He was againstthe idea that facts offered substantial evidence of the past, yetthey did not rely on any source or empirical data to support thearguments. Historical data could only be based on relation and notobjectivity. As portrayed by the various examples, the available datais based on what the objective historians thought was worthrecording. Several facts have not been included. Therefore, thecurrent scholars, as well as the populations, can only compare thefacts to gain the knowledge.

Gould’sviews and Inductivism

SteveGould was also quite discriminate of the antique means of collectingfacts. In his opinion, inducing ideas from data is rather untrue.According to inductivists, people garner knowledge through continuousobservation and comprehension of factual ideas. However, Gouldbelieved the studies were conducted many years ago and had nosubstantial backing or rather evidence. Unlike other scholars whosuggested that inadequacy of fossil records were responsible for thegaps in Darwin’s theory, Gould stated that phylogeny was due tostasis encompassed with rapid changes in time. During this period,the Inductivist beliefs of science were practiced by manypaleontologists. As per Gould’s assertions, science does notadvance by a sturdy accretion of facts. Instead, it progresses withfacts perceived from a hypothetical viewpoint. In other words,researchers do not meet facts as impartially provided “data.”Instead, they see them via the light of philosophy that end updictating what we comprehend. The preceding declarations can beinterpreted radically as if researchers can certainly not allowthemselves to comprehend their presumptions. Nonetheless, it cansimilarly be construed quite conventionally. Individuals are bound tobe partial in many ways. However, different people have thepropensity of differing regarding biases. According to Gould, scienceis one of the most accurate techniques of reconciling thesediversities. He embraced the most conventional approach [CITATION Joh15 p 44 l 1033 ].

Goulddoes not believe comprehension of the various subjects, i.e. scienceand humanities can be the same. As per Inductivists, observation andcontinuous examination of facts boosts acquisition of knowledge.However, the same magnitude cannot be applied in all the aspects. Forinstance, it is much harder to understand scientific facts ascompared to humanities i.e. history and religion. As per Gould’ssentiments, science dealt with scientific theorems, and empiricalfacts, whereas religion derived the conceptions of moral values. Hefurther affirmed that the humanities assist scientists to communicateeffectively and sets boundaries that detach religion, the humanities,and science. The core idea was to show that observation alone cannotbe accredited to the comprehension of facts [CITATION Ric11 p 185 l 1033 ].

Similaritiesbetween the two scholars

Carrand Gould correlate with the fact that humans have a tendency to bebiased. Therefore, historical facts are based on individualperceptions and do not entirely represent the events on the ground.Ancient researchers made assumptions depending on theirunderstanding. As Carr rightly establishes, historians could leaveout relevant information. And as years go by, the information isbound to get lost. Therefore, the empiricist notion of objectivity isquite misconstrued. A better idea would be to adopt relativism thatencourages comparisons.

Thetwo scholars also suggest current data collection mechanism ought tobe applied to ascertain ancient findings. As evidenced by Carr’sview, antique facts were based on small groups, unlike modernresearchers who have to compare numerous documents. In that regard,modern scientists can attain more accurate facts. On the other hand,Gould suggested that the changing times are primarily responsible forthe gaps in Darwin’s fossil facts [CITATION Ric11 p 56 l 1033 ].

Somehowthe different subjects cannot be comprehended in the same way. Asearlier illustrated, Carr believes the empiricist idea is notapplicable to historiography. This is due to the collectionmechanisms and means of recording utilized in the different subjects.For example, historical facts are primarily recorded by historianswho have the capability to select what should be recorded. On theother hand, as Gould suggests, scientific research is mainlyaccompanied by experiments and consistent observations. The findingscan rarely be altered since they do not depend chiefly on thescientist’s perceptions. Gould believes humanities only assist thescientists to communicate appropriately and thereby sets boundariesthat detach religion, humanities, and science.


Ingeneral, there is a need to adopt an all-inclusive approach toaffirming the findings. The scholars do not entirely discredit thetwo theories. As a matter of fact, empiricism ideology on inductionis quite applicable in many facets. It explains why children need tolearn how to talk and walk. It also illustrates how knowledge isacquired over time. Most of the elements in the two theories haveresulted in better findings in the modern research.


Astonkwok. &quotE.H. Carr on the relationship between Historians and Facts.&quot 20 March 2012. E.H. Carr on the relationship between Historians and Facts. 27 July 2016.

Clark, Richard York and Brett. &quotStephen Jay Gould’s Critique of Progress.&quot February 2011. Stephen Jay Gould’s Critique of Progress. 27 July 2016.

Gracepor. &quotCarr and the Relativist Approach to Historical Method.&quot 24 October 2008. Carr and the Relativist Approach to Historical Method. 27 July 2016.

Horgan, John. &quotPaleontologist Stephen Jay Gould was influenced by Marx and Kuhn as well as by Darwin.&quot 2 November 2015. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould was influenced by Marx and Kuhn as well as by Darwin. 27 July 2016.

Pievani, Telmo. &quotMany ways of being human, the Stephen J. Gould’s legacy to Palaeo-Anthropolog.&quot Journal of Anthropological Science (2012): 133-149. Document.

Instructor`s name




Thewater dance by Chris Porter featuring Pitbull is the most appealing.The music and dance moves are well choreographed with theinterchanges between the dancers also being effectively done.Watching the live dance performance would not change my perceptiontowards it. In fact, the video captures a more attention than liveperformance.

Changingthe music will definitely alter the mood of the dance and the feelingtowards it. For instance, classical piano music will need the dancemoves to be changed or rather slowed down. Since the two styleselicit different emotions, my feelings towards the music will changeand it would effectively change my perception towards the dance.


Breakdancing is the most popular dance style within my social setting.Hip-hop dancers are more inclined to attempt this style on more thanone occasion. The fact that it gels well with the hip-hop music makesit attractive.

Salsastyle is the most popular at weddings. It works perfectly when pairedwith hip-hop music. Many people relate to salsa at weddings since itbrings the couples closely to one another than any other dance move.Choreographing the moves with hip-hop music makes it even moreenticing. The style emanates from the top rock which is a constituentof B-boying and B-girling.

Therobot which emanates from top rocking is another dance move common inmany places, especially streets. It cuts across all the age groupssince even kids try it out at tender ages. In addition to that, themove is also common in weddings. Much of this style borrows movesfrom top rocking.

Uprockalso referred to as rocking is a popular dance move that is soulfuland competitive [ CITATION Jor l 1033 ].It isnormally done in synchronization to the rhythms and beats of funkmusic, rock, and soul. It consists of creative movements, spins, andshuffles that mimic combat.


Beyoncecopied the Rosas danst Rosas in her clip countdown. There is astriking resemblance not only on the moves but also in the shots,setting and costumes. Beyonce cleary copies the choreography. She didreference the origin of the moves, thereby contravening protocols. Itmight not be intentional since most of her dance moves are obtainedfrom different choreographers. In that regard, it would be better toacknowledge the origin of the choreographies to appease the owner.


Inthe Freshest Kids tries to display the bedrock, evolution, and globaldevelopment among other facets of dancing constituents of Hip-hop. Itis rather interesting that a concise definition or even the origin ofthe term B-boy is unknown. Though most agree b-boy signified breakingboys, some think it emanates from the slang meaning of temper. Recentcommercialization led to the term breakdancing.

Theoriginal versions are quite basic as compared to the current styles.After the 1983 Flashdance, it gained countrywide recognition andmaybe the manipulations began from this point onwards. Kids in thelow-income earning areas typify the B-boy moves. They would spend thewhole day competing hence it impacted positively on them. Anotherinteresting thing in this documentary is the fact that individualswere immovable when differentiating rap, culture, and hip-hop.Hip-hop combines DJing, rapping, B-boying, and graffiti art. In thatsense, some individuals do not think rappers are encompassed aship-hop artists since the other elements of the culture are notincorporated into their music.


Pablon, Jorge. &quotPhysical Graffiti.&quot 1999. Physical Graffiti. 26 July 2016.

Instructor`s name


Intothe Woods is a musical by Stephen Sondheim and a book by JamesLapine. It interweaves Charles Perrault tales and plots from BrothersGrim, to explore the significances of the characters’ quests andwishes. The key figures in this play emanate from Cinderella,Rapunzel, Jack and the Beanstalk, and the Little Red Ridinghood amongother works. It is embedded through the tale of a childless bakertogether with his wife who embark on a quest to start a family. Theyinteract with a witch who curses them.

Throughoutthe tale, they interact with other characters from other storybooks.This musical provides challenges as well as opportunities for boththe audience and performers. The music and songs entailed in itexpress what motivates the main characters while acting as a drivingforce of the narrative. Realizing the journeys the characters take,the kind of songs and their positioning as well as the music theylisten is vital to understand this story. This paper will discuss thevarious aspects of literature entailed within this musical. Theliterature elements utilized include metaphors, motifs, and themesamong others. In addition to that, the plot and characterrepresentation will be outlined in this article.


Theplay has two acts that are separated by slight intervals. The firstact consists of five scenes whereas the second one has two. Thescenes blur and blend and may seem episodic at times. A narrator isutilized to narrate the different features of the tale since it iscomprised of many characters who try to give multiple stories abouttheir journeys into the woods.

Act1 typically concentrates on “Happily Ever After” that is often inmany fairy tales. It introduces four familiar fairy story characterswho embark on predictable quests. For example, Jack climbs abeanstalk thereby discovering the land of giants and Rapunzel managesto escape from a tower with the assistance of the prince (Rich 37).Also, Red Ridinghood meets a wolf that is disguised as hergrandmother, and Cinderella meets her Prince Charming at the ball. Inaddition to that, the principal characters, i.e. Baker and the wifeembark on a quest to build a family (Barsanti 75). The two realizethat a witch had cursed them hence, they could not bear children.The only remedy was to embark on a journey “into the woods.”Their quest was to acquire slipper that is pure like gold fromCinderella, yellow hair from Rapunzel, a purely white cow replacingthe magic beans, and a red cap from the Little Red Ridinghood. Thetwo had to lie slightly to achieve their quest. Act 1 ends after thetwo acquire all the required items so that they seem to “livehappily ever after.”

Inthe second Act, the characters have to take charge of theconsequences emanating from the previous quest. Queries that emanatefrom this part include does marrying a prince symbolize a lifetimehappiness? Are characters completely evil or good? They work inharmony rather than indulging in blame games. The culture of helpingone another through adversities is championed in this Act. In anattempt to develop a novel meaning of “happily ever after,” theywork together to solve issues within them thereby experiencingtransformation. In general, the tale emphasizes on the notion weshould be careful about what we wish (Barsanti 77).


Oneof the stylistic device utilized within the story entails metaphor.With the aim of enhancing the meaning of the situation, the story wasmetaphorically related to HIV/AIDS. The United States was in an AIDScrisis when this work debuted. It was, therefore, construed as aparable-like perspective on AIDS. The giant’s wife in the taleserved as a metaphor for HIV/AIDS. It killed both good and evilpeople without discrimination (Opera 6). The survivors were thenforced to combine efforts, working together as a community to limitor rather defeat this crisis. Though the work was not meant to targetthe AIDS crisis, audiences interpreted it in that manner. Metaphorsare common ways of expressing words to target particular ill withoutnecessarily being direct. This work effectively showcases theattribute, and people were able to gain from the same. In otherwords, after likening AIDS to the giant’s wife from the story,communities came together to fight it.

Themusical comprises of several themes including morality, wishfulfillment as well as its consequences, accepting responsibility,and parents, children, and upbringing. The parent-child relationshipis a core theme within this musical. In other words, children andtheir parents have a key role to play in the community. The witch inthis act symbolizes moral ambivalence. It is not just an old hagmeant to cause havoc in communities. According to James Lapine, theWitch which is usually the most unpleasant individual utters thetruth. On the other hand, “nicer” individuals tend to be lesshonest.

Fromthe Witch’s utterances: “I am not nice I am not good I am justright” it evidently suggests that nicer people are more dishonestthan evil ones. In that case, an individual who seems upright can liewithout necessarily being noticed, whereas an evil person speaks thetruth. They rarely hide the truth. The other core theme is Wishes,their fulfillment, and consequences (Barsanti 95). The Baker and hiswife wished for a family not knowing they were under a spell from awitch. On realizing the same, they had to embark on a tedious journeyto fulfill their wish. In the process, they encountered variousobstacles and were forced to lie on several occasions. In the end,they managed to obtain their quest. However, this had direconsequences. The author clearly illustrates how people strive tomake their wishes come true. However, any harmful practice to achievethe same has several consequences. In the end, the two had toendeavor to achieve their definition of “happily ever after.”

Lightand darkness is another obvious theme within this work. The titlesuggests that individuals are entering the darkness which typifiesevil. Once they enter into this darkness, there is hope of seeing thelight at the other end. In other words, after coming out of thedarkness, the characters can see the light typically meaning theiracts would change. In addition to that, darkness can also mean amisconstruction of the truth. The character of the Baker cansymbolize light while the Witch typifies darkness. The two aspectscoexist. Sometimes people have to undergo some period of darkness totransform. In that period, they indulge in evil practices, whetherknowingly or unknowingly. However, seeing the light acts as the pointof transformation.

Genderis another theme entailed within this musical. Women play asignificant role within this play. Red Ridinghood shows greatresilience to rescue Jack. She also goes through a transformationphase that makes her more responsible. Cinderella characterizes goodwhereas the Witch is a symbol of evil. However, the Witchconsistently utters honest sentiments, unlike the other individuals.The male characters in this musical are childlike or ratherindecisive apart from the Baker. Jack is entirely dependent on hismother and relates to other animals easily than other humans. The twoPrinces are also spoilt due to too much pampering. They, therefore,lack emotional stability as depicted by their double “Agony.”

Thefairy tale theme is the foundation of this musical. It offerspredictability and comfort where the author manipulates the plot tokeep the story going. A paradox of this musical is the way we relatethe characters to childlike behaviors and virtuousness yet they haveresponsibilities and making choices while growing. It unsettles theviewers or readers to see how the characters are forcefully made togrow and lose their magic sparkle. They face reality and are inclinedto make moral judgments like mere mortals. The Baker and his wife tryto link the viewers with the worlds of reality and fantasy.

Motifsare another literature element utilized within this musical. Theyconnote vital points within the tale championed by the utilization ofmagic. Spell chords that use the Wagnerian style signify the Witch’smotif. The chords illustrate when the witch uses her powers and whenshe loses them. Another motif involves the bean. It consists of fivenotes that are utilized anytime the beans appear.


Intothe Woods is one of the best musical of all time. Combining variousfairy tales it depicts both humor and somberin the two Acts. The author also utilizes various literature elementsto fit the audience. For instance, the story metaphoricallysymbolizes HIV/AIDS, which was quite predominant during this period.In addition to that, several themes can be drawn from the taleincluding light and darkness, parent-child relationship, and wishfulfillment and the consequences involved.


Barsanti, Chris. The Woods Are Crawling With Metaphors in Sondheim`s `Into the Woods. 14 December 2014. &lt

Harcourt Education. Into the Woods Study guide. 2009.

Lapine, James. Into the Woods. Off-Broadway, 2015.

Rich, Frank. &quotStage: `Into the Woods,` From Sondheim.&quot 6 November 1990. Stage: `Into the Woods,` From Sondheim. &lt

Victoria Opera. &quotInto the Woods.&quot (2014): 1-15.

Victorian Opera. &quotInto the Woods Resource – VCE Theatre Studies.&quot (2014): 1-27.

Instructor`s Name

Identityand Subculture

Thefitness industry accounts for a significant proportion of the globalbusiness today. It has turned into a culture for anyone interested,but its state today cannot be compared to its state in the pastCentury because it was characterized by a connection to nationalattitudes. At present, fitness is a highly personalized activity. Toa casual onlooker, bodybuilding may seem to be a simple attempt byindividuals to gain muscles through training and nutrition to thelevel that they consider perfect for themselves. However,bodybuilding is about achieving a certain level of vascularity thattakes many months and stages of training and proper nutrition.Therefore, to appreciate bodybuilding as a subculture, there must bean acknowledgment of the fact that it involves practice and result.Through training and proper dieting, bodybuilding can be deemed alabor-intensive process of achieving the desired muscular body, butthe result entails the transient pleasure that comes along with it.The outcome of attaining muscularity can be given a durable meaningin photographic nature. This is why the representation of muscularbodies in photographs and magazines has been crucial to thebodybuilding subculture since its beginning. Therefore, this paperanalyzes the subculture of bodybuilding with a particular focus onits historical background, characteristics, and effect on identityand belonging in the society.

Historyof bodybuilding

Whilethere is limited sociological work regarding bodybuilding as asubculture, the origin of this culture is traceable to the 19thCentury. Arguably, one man, Eugene Sandow, is recognized as the onebehind the development of the physical culture (Jesperand Johansson 92).Sandow was undoubtedly responsible for providing the means for peopleto practice physical perfection and the marketing of bodybuildingacross America and Europe among other places.

Sandowwas a strong advocate of the notion that anybody could develop amuscular and symmetrical physique. He believed that this could beattained through scientific exercise programs that incorporated theaspect of weight lifting. Moreover, Sandow was the first individualto inspire the use of heavy resistance training to improve themuscles of the body. This ideology contradicted the wisdom of thatera totally. Similarly, Sandow was a stern believer in the idea thathe was in full control of his physical development. This element ofcontrol enabled Sandow to develop his line of fitness equipment,programs and clubs, as well as, publishing magazines on health andfitness (Jesperand Johansson 92).Therefore, without a doubt, Sandow can be regarded the father ofbodybuilding culture in the world.

Froma sociological perspective, being healthy in the 19thCentury related to physical strength rather than masculinity. Assuch, people valued physical strength for both social and economicintentions. Some of these reasons included capitalists’ value forthe strength of their workers during the industrial revolution.Nonetheless, the development of interest in the health and bodystrength of the entire population needed intervention from the State.According to Jesperand Johansson,the development of government states and their identity was partlygoverned by social policies that related directly to military action(Jesperand Johansson 97).Therefore, it is not surprising that people’s health gainedsignificance among governments, especially in Britain because of theneed for army recruits (Jesperand Johansson 98).

Inthe 19thcentury, the success associated with weightlifting and theappreciation of the results became crucial to the definition ofbodybuilding (Liokaftos64).This achievement led to the development of magazines, books, andother fitness products from Sandow. He developed these items with theaim to make the practice of bodybuilding a marketable commodityincluding its objective, body images, and the body. To emphasize hisbody, Sandow did not put on animal skins and tights. Instead, he onlydressed in brief shorts, or something else while on stage. Thenear-naked display by Sandow was vital to his popularity. This wasthe case to the photographs that were taken of his muscular featuresduring his poses on stage. Paul Bourget, a French traveler, andwriter, once commented that he was shocked to find semi-nude photosof Sandow displayed in most American houses he visited in Newport,Rhode Island (Liokaftos67).Therefore, it can be argued that photography facilitated thedistribution and sale of Sandow’s body mages, and it has been theprimary channel for display of bodybuilding. This remains the basicmode through which this culture lives and has been passed on overtime (Wilson12).

Thepractice of bodybuilding continued into the 20thCentury. This century marked the establishment of the commercial gymand fitness centers. Gyms started operating commercially in the 1970s(Locksand Niall 104).Since then, there has been a rapid growth in the number of fitnesscenters, private fitness clubs, fitness magazines, and professionaltrainers among others. This was because of the changing class rolesin the society. Moreover, the social and cultural landscapes werechanging, with the vibrant commercial culture, taking root in thesociety.

Characteristicsof bodybuilding subculture


Thebody is critical to bodybuilding and the larger society. In thehistory of bodybuilding, people held different views regarding thebody from various points of view such as sociological and religion.This is why the industrialization era led to the increased physicalcontrol of the body through technological and social intervention.The body, as an important aspect of bodybuilding, was subject to arange of debates such as the necessity of health intervention (Jesperand Johansson 106).

Bodybuildingas a sport

Thefirst major event for competitive bodybuilding happened in London, in1901. According to Bey, this was the first real bodybuilding contestin the world (Bey34).The early bodybuilding competitions were primarily posing events withjudges awarding points based on the balance of one’s bodydevelopment. In the modern era, there has been ranging debates onwhether bodybuilding is a sport or not. Nevertheless, it has gainedrecognition widely with modifications of the contests to appeal tothe audiences for example wrestling and boxing. There have been heavypromotional efforts by bodies charged with the mandate to govern thesport.


Asnoted earlier, Sandow was an ardent advocate of the notion thatanyone could develop a muscular and symmetrical physique, includingwomen. Although women constituted the majority of audiences inbodybuilding contests, only a few of them had the courage to join theculture. However, the modern era has seen numerous transformations inthe culture of bodybuilding with many female bodybuilders coming up(Locksand Niall 104).This has been possible due to the proliferation ofbodybuilding-related sports such as boxing and wrestling. At present,there are numerous female boxers in the world, as well as, wrestlers.Most women engaging in bodybuilding sports have three distinctclasses namely figure class, physique class and fitness class. Inboxing and wrestling, these three classes are intertwined togetherwith strength being the dominant element.

Useof performance-enhancing drugs

Theart of bodybuilding is characterized by the use ofperformance-enhancing drugs such as steroids. This practice hasaffected the reputation and popularity of bodybuilding negatively.The use of performance-enhancing drugs was at its peak during thelate phase of the 20thcentury (Wilson15).Largely, the use of drugs to improve performance differentiatesbodybuilding and fitness. Self-confessions from historicalbodybuilding legends such as Pumping Iron prove that drug use inbodybuilding was rampant, and it is still popular today (Wilson15).This tarnishes the culture of bodybuilding as a bad sport, thuscreating a negative reputation.

Bodybuildingeffects on identity and belonging

Asub-culture is made up of a group of individuals who possess similarinterests characterized by the collaboration of its members. Socialinteraction among members of a sub-cultural group leads to themanifestation of behavior, beliefs, and attitudes among the groupmembers. These beliefs or behaviors may or may not be in alignmentwith the conventional values of the society. Liokaftossuggests that the bodybuilding arena represents a highly organizedsocial culture (Liokaftos71).Over time, people have been drawn to this culture for variousreasons, and once committed, they uphold the norms of the culturethroughout their lives. For instance, people who start training asbodybuilders reach a point where they cannot turn back. Therefore,they become bodybuilders by default, and that transforms themcompletely. Additionally, such people become accustomed to attendingthe gym to the extent that a day cannot pass without a gym session.

Sub-culturalgroups in the society may also become deviant in some ways, either byupholding values and norms opposed to those held by the Society, orby taking values and norms held by the society to extreme lengthssuch that they are no longer deemed normal (Bey41).Members of a sub-cultural group uphold the group’s values bylearning mechanisms, enhancing reputation in the group and conformingto the behavior of the group.

.Essentially, these values appear to be aligned with the conventionalvalues of the society. The culture of bodybuilding, therefore, seemsto appreciate the society and does not try to substitute theestablished values with new or adapted values. Individuals who workhard towards individualism and economic goals characterize theculture.


Thisimage comes from Sharif Bey’s autoethnography about bodybuildingculture. It features a bodybuilder stretching his muscles out withhis top off. He is featured as a bodybuilder given the fact that hisbody muscles are tight, and they look rugged. The photo contains aninscription, “VITAMINA D &amp BODYBUILDING, which confirms thatsome members of this subculture use performance-enhancing drugs toboost the growth of their muscles. It also confirms that bodybuildingearns one recognition in admiration because of the masculinity andsymmetry of their physique.


Herculesis the protagonist in the film Hercules. This film has been producedin various editions since mid-twentieth century to the latest editionthat premiered in 2014. This analysis specially focuses on theHercules film of 1958. Hercules may have been characterized before,but the shift from bodybuilding to acting by Steve Reeve transformedthe box office arena (O’Brien56).Reeves starred as Hercules in the film and several other films. Hewas depicted as a muscular giant who could have his way given hislevel of strength and muscular body.

Inthis film, despite Hercules being the protagonist, his strength earnshim honor and a sense of loyalty from his admirers and those who fearhim. Again, Hercules is loyal to his people. He is depicted as acharacter who uses his strength for the good of the people. Moreover,Hercules is portrayed as a character with improved durability andstamina. His entire body is seen to be strong in a way thatsupersedes the strength of normal humans (O’Brien59).In some instances, he seems to be exceedingly fast with the abilityto vanish out of the enemy’s sight. Lastly, he features as atrained hero who masters the art of war and usage of different typesof weapons. This film is a confirmation of the proliferation ofbodybuilding culture through the media.

Inconclusion, it is clear that bodybuilding subculture was born in the19thcentury through Sandow. The practice has grown over time to become akey and dominant industry in the world today. In the past,bodybuilders lifted weights for the physical strength of theirbodies, which was crucial from sociological and economicperspectives. Bodybuilding became popular and lived on throughphotographs in magazines. This culture gained popularity throughimagery as the primary medium. It is characterized by various factorssuch as the body, which is the most important thing, bodybuilding asa sport, female bodybuilders, and the use of performance-enhancingdrugs. The primary values that individuals belonging to thesub-culture of bodybuilding adhere to are mainly rugged personality,health, and heterosexuality. These values are consistent with thecommon values upheld by the society. The culture has motivated therepresentation of movie characters in ways that depict them as hulksor super human heroes due to their strength as illustrated in thefilm Hercules.


Andreasson,Jesper, and Thomas Johansson. &quotThe Fitness Revolution.Historical Transformations in the Global Gym and FitnessCulture.&quot&nbspSportscience review&nbsp23.3-4(2014): 91-111.

Bey,S. H. A. R. I. F. &quotAn autoethnography of bodybuilding, visualculture, aesthetic experience, and performed masculinity.&quot&nbspVisualCulture and Gender9(2014): 31-47.

Locks,Adam, and Niall Richardson, eds.&nbspCriticalReadings in Bodybuilding.Vol. 9. Routledge, 2013.

O’Brien,Daniel. &quotHercules Reformed.&quot&nbspClassicalMasculinity and the Spectacular Body on Film.Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2014.54-71.

Liokaftos,Dimitrios.&nbspFrom‘Classical’To ‘Freaky:’An Exploration of the Development ofDominant, Organised, Male Bodybuilding Culture.Diss. Goldsmiths, University of London, 2012.


Instructor`s name


ChristineDe Pizan – Feminism

ChristineDe Pizan is a renowned author who wrote poetry, books, andbiographies in her time. A good number of her literature involved theincorporation of practical advice for women. Some of the eliteindividuals tend to classify her as an early feminist due to herworks that illustrated the fact that women could be possessingsignificant roles in the society. While some of her articles describethe relevance of women and their contributions to the community,others try to teach women on the ways of cultivating usefulqualities. In the book of the City of Ladies, Christine describes theimportance of women being mediators and peacemakers which go in linewith her stand that the ideal medieval structure is not based on therejection of hierarchy but rather on the acceptance of the women’splace therein [ CITATION Chr011 l 1033 ].

Oneof the main themes that Christine advocated for is the importance ofexercising speech and action for the purpose of enhancing peace.These two aspects found in women have proved to have a considerableeffect on their ability to persuade. Based on these insights we canbe able to establish that one role of women is not necessarily takingcharge of situations. On the contrary, it entails speaking and doingthings in a manner that brings honor, value, and restraint. Forexample, she states that having adequate skill in discourse is avirtue that should be part and parcel of a woman’s repertoire [ CITATION Ear82 l 1033 ].

Aspart of her response to another book, Christine De Pizan looks at thereasons tabled as to why women make the lives of men miserable inmarriages. In this reaction, she comes up with an explanationconcerning this issue. It is quite clear that this allegation was nottaken lightly by the author, who in turn replied by giving astatement that shows how ashamed and disappointed she was thatmembers of her sex would participate in such things (Cannon). It isat this point that she comes up with an allegory consisting of threevirtues in the form of Lady Justice, Lady Rectitude, and Lady Reason.

LadyReason is one of the attributes created to teach both Christine andthe readers. She dispels the ideology that women are evil asdescribed by other literature by learned men. So instead of believingsolely on historical works, the virtue of reason attempts to providean opportunity to look for other explanations concerning theconsiderations of women. In one instance, Lady Reason says thatChristine needs to take the shovel of intelligence and dig deeperinto the trench, and she (Lady Reason) would assist her in removingthe hods of earth [ CITATION Gab55 l 1033 ].This statement essentially symbolizes the need to study further andidentify the real issues instead of believing blindly in what waspreviously argued. In this way, the writer was able to realize thatwomen are not worthless and evil.

Rectitudeis also another aspect of this work, and it tries to alleviatemisconceptions concerning the unfaithfulness and unchaste nature ofwomen. On the contrary, it gives out narrations of women who had goodqualities such as devotion, faithfulness, and chastity. However, italso criticizes those who are evil towards men and end up bringingevil acts to their families. For example, Lady Rectitude in the booksays that she will take part in the building of houses in the city tosymbolize the development of a new ideology that is realistic [ CITATION Ear82 l 1033 ].

Justiceis also mentioned and forms the last virtue in the book. Founded onthe ability to ensure that honesty, fairness, and integrity areupheld, the last Lady looks into the protection of the City.Apparently, the importance of acknowledging the role of women isemphasized. Likewise, there is a plea for the recognition andabolishment of negative sentiments against women. Just because a fewof them did wrong, doesn’t mean that there are no noble ladies. Forexample, Lady Justice explains that the liars should be chased away,and the city is protected.

Basedon these facts, Christine was able to look into the role of women inthe society using an insightful technique. First and foremost, shebegins by acknowledging that there is a need for women to rise andlet their presence be felt in the society, this can only happen bystarting with changing the reasoning. In this way, the women will beable to realize that their presence is as important in the community.Also, by rectifying some of the adverse behaviors, they can be ableto establish themselves, and their role accepted and recognized.Finally by applying justice, the lies and misconceptions regardingthe uselessness of women will be discarded, and a new insight thatpraises the ideal woman is established. However, these processes arenot based on the overthrowing of the customary societal hierarchy. Itfocuses more on the improvement of the status of the woman while atthe same time tending to the needs of the men. It advocates forrecognition, praise where due and acknowledgment of the significanceof the woman. At the same time, it tries to eliminate thespeculations and stereotyping by the men as well as the lies thatdemean the real character of the woman.


Astrik, Gabriel. &quotThe Educational Ideas of Christine De Pizan.&quot Journal of the History of Ideas (1955): 3-21. Web.

Cannon, Charity Willard. The Diffuse of Women. New York: Perea Books, 1994. Print.

Cannon, Willard Charity. &quotThe Courtly Poet.&quot Cannon, Willard Charity. The Writings of Christine De Pizan. New York: Parea Books, 1994. 27-40. Print.

Pizan, Christine De. The Book of The City of Ladies. New York: Persea, 1401. Print.

Richards, Earl Jeffrey. The Book of the City of Ladies. New York: Persea Books, 1982. Print.

Instructor`s name


CareCoordination: Benefits of Interprofessional Collaboration

Interprofessionalcollaboration has recently received a lot of emphasis by the nursingcommunity. Care coordination is an essential part of health serviceswhich involves the deliberate arrangement of patient care activitiesbetween two or more participants. The primary function of thisprocess is to ensure that there is a maintained provision of thepatient requirements throughout treatment or rehabilitation.Transitional care is part of the synchronization between healthcareinstitutions that provides continuity of care from one setting (suchas a hospital or a home) to another [ CITATION Ger15 l 1033 ].Normally,the needs of patients change during illness and treatment process.These alterations prompt their transfer to a specialized facility ifthe condition worsens, or, to a less demanding setting if thepatient’s condition stabilizes. As an essential component ofpatient transition, poor coordination between settings has beenidentified as the leading cause of medical errors that adverselyaffect the patients’ well-being.

Caretransition cannot be successful without the application of realinterprofessional collaboration between healthcare institutions. Assuch, the vulnerability of both children and adults are recognized tobe vulnerable facets, especially in cases of chronic diseases andcomplicated health requirements. Movement requires accuratepreparation, timely communication, and patient education beforeembarking on the process [ CITATION Bri151 l 1033 ].Lackof such harmonization puts patients at risk of developing severeoutcomes or the worsening of their conditions. This topic explainsthe importance of collaboration in healthcare and the associatedpositive results.

TheBenefits of Collaboration

Changingpatients between providers requires high levels of preparation andinformation to patients and their families. Poor communication duringthe transition period exposes patients to adverse results andincreased cost. New models and tools have been established that worktowards ensuring a smooth transition process of transferring clientsto new health facilities. The most significant benefits ofcollaboration in nursing are discussed below.

Firstand foremost, teamwork has proven to be an important intervention,especially due to the increase in the complexity of health problemssuch as cancer, diabetes, heart diseases and other infectiousillnesses. These conditions have led to the specialization of medicalstaff, particularly in the field of nursing in various areas ofhealthcare. Since some patients suffer from more than one ailment,there is a need for collaboration between the consultants to ensurethat the issues have been resolved adequately. Such partnerships mayhappen within a facility or between two or more other hospitals. Suchjoint efforts allow the professionals to work together for the goodof the clients [ CITATION Ger15 l 1033 ].

Lackof access to health services is one of the biggest setbacks in theprovision of services. Interprofessional collaboration works towardsalleviating this problem by the incorporation of diverse health teamswith relevant skills and experience in understanding the needs of thepatients, the structure of the affected communities and the culturesthat may hinder utilization of these services [ CITATION Jea15 l 1033 ].By working together with the publichealth workers and other professionals, a society can benefit fromthe education and combined effort as a whole.

Newprograms and technologies keep on being launched regularly. It isevident that some health facilities are more advantaged to beinvolved in the innovation or the receiving of such fresh methods.Without collaboration, it would take a long time before otherinstitutions acquire the novel services and disseminate them to theneedy individuals. However, good communication and informationsharing between the organizations provides a leeway for quick spreadand application of new-fangled ideas and practices. Furthermore,research studies require the input of several professionals to ensurethat there is continuous quality improvements leading to meaningfuloutcomes in patients [ CITATION Bri151 l 1033 ].

Oneof the common happenings in the nursing setting is the transition ofcare for patients. During this process, there have been a lot ofreports that indicate the increased number of errors that occur. Thisis one area where the significance of interprofessional collaborationcannot be ignored. As mentioned earlier, the smooth transitionrequires sufficient preparation, continuous flow of accurate data andinformation followed by enhanced performance outcomes [ CITATION Ger15 l 1033 ].By working together, professionals from the involved institutions candevelop better ways of patient transition without increasing therisk of danger. Additionally, best services that are safe andacceptable are established.

Patientcare is not effective if the patient and his family or guardian arenot at ease with the procedures and activities that take place. Thisis where interprofessional teamwork comes into play. In this case, nosingle person is entirely responsible for a patient’s welfare. Onthe contrary, a team from one or more facilities can be involved inthe treatment as well as communication and education to the sickperson and the family. In this way, these people can understand thesituation and at the end of the day, they can support therecommendations of the specialists on the way forward in the interestof the patient’s well-being [ CITATION Jea15 l 1033 ].

Lastly,the development of policies that regulate nursing practices andprotect the welfare of both the patient and healthcare providers. Theregulations are more clear and workable if they are generated from acollective effort of collaboration between professionals with diversespecialties. The outcome of these policies ensures the improvement inthe quality of healthcare while at the same time ensuring staffsatisfaction.


Lamb, Gerri. &quotOverview &amp Summary: Care Coordination: Benefits of Interprofessional Collaboration.&quot September 2015. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Document. 21 July 2016.

Scholz, Jean. &quotRegistered Nurse Care Coordination: Creating a Preferred Future for Older Adults with Multimorbidity.&quot September 2015. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Document. 21 July 2015.

Yeaman, Brian. &quotCare Transitions in Long-term Care and Acute Care: Health Information Exchange and Readmission Rates.&quot September 2015. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Document. 21 July 2016.