a. i) Trainingcan solve problems related to efficiency and productivity. It canalso increase the skills and knowledge of employees (Reed &ampBogardus, 2012). Nevertheless, training is not always a suitablesolution since some issues such as technological challenges arebeyond an employee’s control.

ii) Theassessment of training needs includes several steps such asidentification of goals and desired outcomes, collection and analysisof data, identification of performance gaps, and proposal ofsolutions (Reed &amp Bogardus, 2012). It is also critical to outlinethe effects of proposed solutions on the budget.

iii) Variousfactors influence the decision of whether to outsource or traininternally. Such factors include the availability of funds, timerequired, training styles, knowledge of the subject, andcommunication skills (Reed &amp Bogardus, 2012).

b. The strengthof using such an approach is that it provides employees with anopportunity to participate in setting goals. In this regard, thesupervisor signs a written agreement with the employee at the outsetof employment. Signed contracts specify the objectives andperformance measures of each position. The approach also provides anallowance for quarterly performance ratings such that the worker canidentify potential areas of improvement. Nevertheless, such anapproach allows subjectivity in conducting performance appraisals.Consequently, the supervisor applies personal standards ininterpreting the employee’s obligations.

c. The first itemconcerns a worker who believes that he is being pitted against senioremployees. He is convinced that such treatment owes to the fact thathe did not get 5’s on his evaluation. In such a case, I would helpthe employee to understand that scoring 5`s would only be possiblewhen he acquires more experience. I will also show him that fewsenior employees received such scores. Furthermore, I would setproductivity goals for the worker. Item 3 depicts a new manager whois unclear as to the meaning of some terms on the performanceappraisal form. I would explain to the manager that conduct referredto a worker’s actions while attitude referred to the employee’sdemeanor (Reed &amp Bogardus, 2012). I would also provideexplanations to all key terms used in the proposal form. Item 4 showsa newly-promoted supervisor who feels unqualified to conduct fairevaluations on three of his employees (Reed &amp Bogardus, 2012). Iwould help the supervisor to fulfill her duties by sending herupdated employee charts. Such logs would help her to make the bestdecisions regarding how to evaluate the three workers.


Reed, S. M. &amp Bogardus, A. M. (2012). PHR / SPHR: Professionalin Human Resources Certification Study Guide (4thed.). Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Pub.