Florence,a town in Italy, which has featured the DaVinciseries, is home of the first recognized piano made by BartolomeoCristofori in 1700. The instrument was named “gravicembalocol piano et forte”meaning a “keyboardinstrument with soft and loud.”Its name came from the dynamic level of sounds that were produced byvibration when a wooden hammer covered with deer skin struck thestrings. As time passed, they become instruments of admiration amongthe rich people. Thus, they started being manufactured. This processevolved to digital ones, which have software that records the playand are being produced by different companies today.

History of the Piano


Iused these two sources as they detail the concrete history of pianos.

Performerand Composers

DukeEllington has been an instrumental composer and performer in thehistory of jazz. He had a band which he bonded with for quite long,performing various songs. Also, Beethoven, one of the 19th-centurycomposers and performer, came up with great piano pieces. His pieceshave been played on many occasions by various orchestra groups, andhe is commemorated as a great pianist. Because Bernstein was apianist, he has composed various songs, which were played accompaniedby a piano.





Iused these sources as they have biographies of these artists.

FiveGreat Repertoires

Beethovenwrote a piece called SonataPathetiqueat the age of 27 years in 1798. He also composed MoonlightSonata,which was dedicated to his pupils in 1802. FurElise,composed in 1810 but published in 1867 is also another importantpiece. Duke Ellington also wrote some music like “ItDon’t Mean a Thing if it Aint Got that Swing.” Also, another piece by Duke is Ina Sentimental Moon.These pieces have been very instrumental in the history of music andhave been played by the various orchestra and even institutionalcompetitions.



Thesesources provided me with the music pieces of these artists.

RoyalConcertgebouw and Berlin Philharmonie Orchestras

Ichose to discuss this group after I came across a YouTube clip playedby Royal Concertgebouw. This group has been there since 1888, one ofthe groups with very elderly men and have made people appreciatemusic and orchestra due to their prowess. They have performed manyconcerts and keep on doing it and my favorite instrument never missin their concerts. Both critics and fans applaud them for theirunique great perfomances. The other orchestra of interest BerlinPhilharmonie, which was established in 1963, the group has asignificant performance. Their instruments range from flute, cello,trumpet, trombone, violin to oboe. They are also well known for theirability to invent unique sounds and play in their performances, whichleaves people thrilled. For, those reasons I chose this two orchestragroups for my assignment.




Alleluia:O virga mediatrixcomposed by Bingen Hildegard Von is located in the performer’srole, class1readings. The music reminded me of Catholic adorationhymn songs, though I could not tell which language was used, it hassimilarities with responsorial Psalm that is usually sung in betweenCatholic readings. Thus, the song serves as a religious utility, andit brings worship memories and images of church sculptures, saints,angels, and Jesus painting, which are usually associated withworship.

Alleluia:O virga mediatrixis a solo vocalist performance as the song was smooth, and itsbalance could only have been maintained by a single person. I feltthat it was an excellent performance, though sang in a foreignlanguage I could associate with the music. There was a soft rhythmin his voice, and he sang it with composure. If the purpose of themusic was to put people in a worship mood, the performer excellentlydid it, because if not, I would not have identified the music as suchand united with it as it sounded familiar. You could feel andvisualize the emotion displayed by the singer.


Rightfrom the settlement of European in Northern US whites dominated,enslaved and oppressed blacks (Berkin,et al.420).Despite the civil war eventually bringing about the banning ofslavery, a cruel white supremacy system persisted afterthat.African Americans in Southern andmost parts close to the border weredeniedright to associate with whites in someinstitutions as well as public accommodations such as hospitals,schools, restrooms,lunch counters, beaches, railroad cars and hotels (Berkin,et al.420).This paper will discuss three most critical components that includesecular left, religion,and Black Nationalist.


Thesecularleft is one of the most importantelementsof civil rights movement as the majorityof its members wanted the churchto beseparatedfrom secularists and State. The members of secular left played avital role in different revolts that arose in the 1960s(Berkin,et al.,818).Forexample,American Communist Party (ACP) members led the revolutionwhile at the same time fighting for racial justice. As a result ofsuch commitments members of ACP stood with their party as well asjoining other grassroots and national organizations in an attempt tocampaign for justice. Brooklyn`s school integration is an excellentexample of a secularleft advocate in 1950s. The secularleftrole in civil rights revolutions isfurther demonstratedby the participationof social and anti-communist democratic socialist (Berkin,et al.818).These two revolutions had a central role in particular revolts suchBoycott in 1964 in New York School.


Religionis the second most critical component of civil rights movement. Thismovement consists of all religious elements including variousdenominations` leaders and other ordinarypersons who took participated in planning, organizing andimplementing variouscivil rights revolts (Berkin,et al.429).Under this component,black churches were highly active inboth planning and actual participation in demonstrations that aimedat propagation of racial parityand freedom. For example, churches carried out several night meetingswhere members wereenlightenedon different crucial rights and freedom matters. Such night meetingswereledby the eloquent speakers who provided members with all sorts ofrights and libertiesthey deserved but were beingdeniedby the government (Berkin,et al.429).Some of the freedom the religion component provided its members withincluded singing songs of freedom, chances for testimony and creatingthe civil rights movements.


Itisbelievedthat Black Nationalist aroused important objectives previouslyinstigated by earlier civil rights movements. In a nutshell,different objectivesassociated with the Black Nationalists had existed in the eraof revolution such &quotDo not Buy Where You Cannot Work&quotcampaigns that had beenconductedin different US cities (Berkin,et al.429).Oneof the characteristics the Black Nationalist activists and memberswere identified with is the ability to stick to their words. Thishelped them to not only participate and advocate for civil rightscrusades but also to defend their stand they were alleged ofviolating some clauses in the constitution without changing theirview on the freedom and racial justice (Berkin,et al. 429).Black Nationalist also worked in cooperation with personalities suchas Malcolm X,and this helped them to acquire Human rights inadditiontocivil rights absent in lives of blacks throughout the US history.Another significantrole played by the Black Nationalist is the inculcating the unityamong its members demonstrated by Malcolm X,who at some instances could disagree with ideologies of BlackNationalist but never quitted the organization but used the movementas a means to resist the school segregation (Berkin,et al.429).


Berkin,Carol, et al. Making America: A of the United States, Volume2: Since 1865, Brief, 6th Edition, 2014. Print.