Health Psychology




The Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) can be used toadvise patients on various aspects of personal health (Taylor, 2015).The model comprises of several stages that are fundamental inintegrating changes across different theories of intervention (Ragin,2015). TTM recognizes the fact that behaviors have a significantimpact on morbidity. In fact, unhealthy habits could lead tomortality. It is important for health care providers to understandthe factors that cause patients to manifest particular behaviors(Taylor, 2015). Therefore, transtheoretical models appeal to me sincebehavior change affects three pillars of population health, namely,chronic care management, quality and safety, and public health.

Transtheoretical models apply to personal health care when a patientdisplays perilous behaviors. For example, a client suffering fromdiabetes could continue to consume substances that elevate his bloodsugar level beyond tolerable limits. In such a case, behavior changewould help such a patient to avoid foods with glucose. Besides,transtheoretical models are useful in ensuring quality and safety(Glanz, Rimer, &amp Viswanath, 2015). For instance, a health carepractitioner would advise his clients to avoid smoking. Such warningswould be issued due to the inherent dangers of tobacco and otherstimulants.

Furthermore, transtheoretical models feature prominently in publichealth. Notably, pandemics as H1N1 and Ebola viruses have causedconsiderable numbers of casualties among the population (Glanz etal., 2015). Therefore, health care stakeholders advise members of thepublic to receive vaccinations. Undergoing immunizations bolsters thecommunity’s health. Also, transtheoretical models are utilized inthe management of chronic conditions (Taylor, 2015). In many cases,patients with terminal illnesses face difficulties in accepting theirdiagnosis. In this regard, transtheoretical models would help suchclients to implement identity tradeoffs and adapt to their physicallimitations (Ragin, 2015).

Indeed, transtheoretical models appeal to me due to their broadapplicability in many segments of population health.


Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K. &amp Viswanath, K. (2015). Healthbehavior: Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco, CA:Jossey-Bass.

Ragin, D. F. (2015). Health psychology: An interdisciplinaryapproach to health (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Taylor andFrancis.

Taylor, S. E. (2015). Health psychology. New York, NY:McGraw-Hill Education.

Health Psychology


Individuals who experience traumatizing events face severalpsychological issues, but the major one is Post-Traumatic StressDisorder. Behavioral health experts report that it is common forvictims and first responders to experience intense memories oftraumatic events. However, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder comes aboutwhen these memories become involuntary and intrusive (Zoroya, 2016).Zoroya reports that Kathy Platoni one of the witnesses of the FortHood mass shootings, still suffers from PTSD seven years later.First-responders, such as the police and the military, end upsuffering similar psychological problems as the immediate victims oftraumatic events. Symptoms of PTSD include a feeling of helplessnessand despair. Apart from PTSD, survivors and witness of traumaticevents suffer from other psychological problems such as increasedanxiety and depression(Insel &amp Roth, 2014).

While the immediate victims of violence experience the most severepsychological problems, these events traumatize even individuals wholive many miles away from where the incidents took place.Additionally, the community where the acts of terror and gun violenceoccur shows psychiatric symptoms. Also, individuals who respond tothe incidence of terror attacks and gun violence end up going throughintense psychological problems. For example, John Max The LawEnforcement Survival Institute’s executive director reports thatabout 13-35% of police officers show signs of PTSD (Zoroya, 2016).While people expect police officers to be tough considering thenature of their training and work, this is usually not the case. Forinstance, John Marx reports that the belief that police officersshould be tough is resulting in many of them enduring the traumawithout seeking for help (Zoroya, 2016).

The media provide extensive coverage to incidences where terror andgun-related attacks have taken place. People who watch the televisedevents over and over are at a greater risk of developingpsychological problems (Kaufman, 2016). Mindy Mechanic a psychologyprofessor, argues that the manner in which the mass media report gunviolence result in a phenomenon she calls “trauma by television”(Kaufman, 2016). This is the trauma acquired indirectly by watchingtraumatic content, particularly on Television where it is verygraphic and visual.

Several programs and services are available to individuals who aregoing through Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder following incidences ofgun violence and terror attacks. The Office for Victims of Crimereports that it provided approximately $65.7 million to the sixStates that had an integral role in addressing the needs of thevictims of September 11, 2001 terror attack. One of the ways themoney was to be used was to finance counseling services for thevictims. Approximately 37,000 victims of the September 9/11 terrorattack were assisted through OVC’s 24- hour toll-free call centerwhere they enjoyed services such as referral to counseling assistance(Office for Victims of Crime, US Dept of Justice, &amp Office ofJustice Programs, 2005). There are other agencies thathelp victims of traumatic events such as The Law Enforcement SurvivalInstitute that offers counseling help to police officers who aretraumatized by the events where they were the first responders. Theother organization is the Heart of Florida United Way that offeredtherapy to the victims of the Orlando shooting.

In conclusion, exposure to violence increases one’s risk ofdeveloping PTSD and other psychological disorders. Some of the riskscome about through exposure to violent television coverage oftraumatic events. However, a strong social support system can helpthe victims of terror attacks and mass shootings overcome thedevastating effects of these traumatic events.


Kaufman, G.(2016). “Watching all that footage of mass shootings might begiving us PTSD symptoms.”

Insel, M. P.&amp Roth, T. W. (2014). CoreConcepts in Health Brief (13 Ed). McGraw-Hill Global Education, LLC.

Office forVictims of Crime, US Dept of Justice, &amp Office of JusticePrograms. (2005). Responding to September 11 Victims: Lessons LearnedFrom the States. Accessed on July 21, 2016.

Zoroya, G.(2016). “After Shooting stops, another fear sets in: PTSD.”