Has the increase in Aviation security played a benefit after 9/11 or do

Has the increase in Aviationsecurity played a benefit after 9/11 or do we need more security toprevent future attacks

Tableof Contents

Introduction 2

Background Information 2

Statement of the problem 2

Justification 3

Objectives 3

Literature Review 4

Aviation Security 4

Accidents and Incidences of Aviation industry 5

Airport Security 5

The 9/11 Bombing of USA 6

Post 9/11 bombing Aviation security 7

Security Challenges 9

Methodology 10

Ethical considerations 10

Data analysis 11

Study limitations 11

Results 12

Discussion 16

Conclusion 18

References 19

Abstract The9/11 attack on the USA revolutionized aviation security. Many moreemployees have been hired by the security organs with hightechnological improvement of the security apparatus. Almost allinternational airports are now fitted with modern body scanningequipment as well as other sensitive cameras which were not usedbefore. Security personnel have also been trained on modern securityapparatus and use of intelligence information. The new securitymeasures have instilled confidence in the passengers who feel moresecure because of the security set up. There are tightenedimmigration laws, intensified screening, domestic spying, securingcockpit and information sharing among the security organs in theaviation industry. However, as revealed in this study, many morestill needs to be done to avert the security threats which are stilllooming due to the loop holes still found in the set up. It isnecessary to ensure 100% utilization of the security apparatus andwork ahead of the terrorists. Total fool proof security is envisagedbut hard to come by. The security apparatus have to be adaptive andproactive to prevent future attack. Even though a lot has been donein the sector, a lot more still needs to be done.IntroductionBackgroundInformation

Air transport is known to be one of the safest modes of transport.This is usually true because of all the precautionary measuresinvolved in the aviation industry. Aviation refers to the design,production operation and the use of aircraft. Due to the delicatenature of flight operations, there is always need to have all thesecurity measures in place to protect the equipment, aviation crewand the passengers involved from accidents, criminal activities andterrorists attacks (Sweet, 2008).&nbspThe current global political situation necessitates high end securitymeasures both for airports and aircrafts due to emergence ofterrorists groups.The current security situation in the world is inneed of the current technology to fight the current crime. The 9/11bombing of USA raised new security concerns and the incident hassince led to various improvements in the aviation security (Itoand Lee, 2005). This thesis seeks to assess if the increase inaviation security after the 9/11 has benefits or if more needs to bedone in the sector to prevent future incidences.

Statementof the problem

Security is one of the greatest needs of the society. Moving fromone place to another by air or road is possible only if it can beguaranteed that you will reach wherever you are going safely.However, other than normal accidents that occur due to failure of theequipment, some of the accidents occur due to malicious acts ofindividuals who are out to harm others. This makes aviation securityone of the most important aspects of the aviation industry. Manysecurity measures have been taken in the past to eliminate maliciousacts of individuals or terrorists who find pleasure in harmingothers. The security situation has been heightened following theincident of 9/11 bombing of the United States of America. The9/11a formed a turning point on how aviation security has been viewedand done. It is interesting to investigate whether or not thenew security measures have realized any benefits. It is alsonecessary to know if there are still any loopholes necessitating theinclusion of more security measures in the aviation industry.

The most notable changes can beseen by the heightened security details through advanced technologyand experienced human resources. However, since this paradigm shift,little research has been done on the effectiveness of the newsecurity measures.

Justification

Understanding the criminal mind and planning ahead of the criminalsis one of the surest ways of ensuring security in the aviationindustry. In order to be effective in the management of aviationsecurity, the security organs have to think ahead of those who causeinsecurity. This is only possible when the security situation isfully understood and the effects of the interventions well known.This study focused on the improvements which have been made in theaviation industry and their effectiveness in reduction of incidentslike that of the 9/11 bombing of the United States of America.

Objectives

  1. To determine various technological and human resource measures implemented in aviation security after 9/11 attack of the USA

  2. To determine the awareness on the impact of improved Aviation security after 9/11 attach of the USA

  3. To determine various avenues for further improvement of aviation security.

Literature ReviewAviationSecurity

Aviation security has been a serious issue since the firstcommercial passenger flight was attacked in the 1960s (Birkland,2004). Various types of threats have been experienced rangingfrom highjackings to bombing (Sandlerand Enders, 2004). For decades now, jihadists have beenseeking every opportunity to attack aircrafts (Hoffman,2003). Whenever their tactics have been known and effectivemeasures put in place to counter them, the terrorists and thejihadists usually revert to new styles. This has made aviationsecurity a real challenge making it a special area of interest formany nations top in the list being the United States of America. Forexample, in the 1990s, the Bojinka-style of attacks that involvedsmuggling of explosives and leaving them aboard was effectivelyaddressed (Thiessen, 2009).&nbspThese made the jihadists come up with the 9/11 style of attack thatcaught the security organs off guard.

When the 9/11 style of bombing was effectively addressed to preventfurther attacks, the jihadists suicide bombers resorted to going onboard planes with explosives concealed in shoes (Hoffman,2002). With the discovery of this style of threat, thejihadists resorted to the use of camouflaged liquid explosives(Bunker, 2011).

In 2009 with increased screening of passengers and their luggage,Al-Qaeda in the Arab Peninsular resorted to the use of explosivessent by air cargo (Katz, 2005).The threats to aviation security is not limited to jihadists andAl-Qaeda but also extends to North Korea, Sikh, Palestenia andHezbolla militants as well as some mentally disturbed individuals whomay want to cause harm to passengers or unnecessary destruction ofproperty (Byman, 2003). Ascan be evident in the manner in which the attacks are conducted, itis difficult to ascertain absolutely full proof security. This is forthe entire aviation industry thus the ground based equipment and theaircrafts.

The large number of passengers and luggage which have to be screenedmake it a real challenge for the security personnel. For instance, in2009, according to the available data in the USA alone, 708, 400, 522passengers were screened. This means that about 1.9 millionpassengers were screened daily for air travel (Goodrich,2002). This is an enormous task. However, it is important topoint out that as long as passengers and their luggage, goods, haveto be aboard planes with ground staff and air crews still serving intheir positions, aviation vulnerabilities will continue to exist.

Accidentsand Incidences of Aviation industry

The convention on International civil Aviation defines an accidentas an occurrence associated with the failure of the aircraft. Itdefines an incident as an occurrence other than an accident thatresults from the use of the aircraft. As recorded by the air craftcrashes record office based in Geneva, aviation accidents andincidents have reduced significantly. As of the year 1999 and earlierover 211 incidences were reported to the office. However, between2009 and 2013 only 140 incidents were reported yearly. The annualfatalities were less than 1000 in six of the ten years since 2004with 2013 having the lowest number at 265. However, the 2001 figureswere blown up by the 9/11 attack that led to close to 3000 deaths.Which is believed to be the highest number since World War II.

AirportSecurity

Airports serve thousands of people every day.This makes them oneofthe most guarded premises in many countries in the world (Lindbergand Lindberg, 1991).&nbspThisis due to the potential threats associated with its operations.Airport security refers to the techniques and methods of protectingpassengers, airport staff and airline crews from accidental ormalicious harms from both within and without the borders of thenations (Srivatanakul, 2005).Possibilities of hijacking planes and chances of carrying lethalweapons are among the reasons for intensified airport security.Airport security personnel attempts at all times to avert anypotential threats before they happen (Lyon,2003). A security lapse at the airport can put the country indangerdue to the fact that dangerous goods or weapons can be smuggledinto or out of the country. The security officers at the airportscreen the passengers for metallic objects and any other materialthat can be used by hijackers to hijack the aircraft. Until 2001before the 9/11 bombing, the procedure was simple and predictable(Bazerman and Watkins, 2005). However, this changed drastically after the 9/11 bombing.

The9/11 Bombing of USA

On the 11th September 2001, the United States of Americawas filled with gloom and sorrow when within one hour and forty twominutes the world trade center and the twin towers collapsed due toterrorist attacks conducted by the Al-Qaeda (Feinberg,2006).&nbsp Thisattack left 2996 people dead and over 6000 people injured andproperty worth of over $3trillion lost. Sadly, the terrorists usedthe two most renowned airlines in the United States of AmericaAmerican Airlines and United Airlines (Commission report, 2011).Fouraircrafts, two for each airline were hijacked by 19 terrorists.American Airlines flight 11 and United Airlines flight 175 werecrashed into the world trade center New York City while AmericanAirlines flight 77 was crashed onto Pentagon. The fourth plane UnitedAirlines flight 93 missed Washington D.C where it was steered andcrashed in the field.How could the enemy (Al-Qaeda) get anopportunity to conduct such a heinous crime amidst the security whichis usually associated with the aviation industry? This occurrencebrought about the need for the security at the airports and aircraftsto be reconsidered. As a result aviation security attracted newattention and new standards have been put in place since the 9/11bombing.

The destruction of the World Trade Center had a significant impactin the global market and the economy of Lower Manhattan (Beunza,and Stark, 2003). Many flights were cancelled due to the factthat it was not immediately possible to know how much the Al-Qaedagroup had planned their attacks. It also took a lot of time to cleanup the world trade center area and clear up the rubble. The fear ofinsecurity impacted the global economy since it was believed that USairlines were among the most secure and reliable carriers, havingsuch an attack in airlines owned by United States instilled fearamong the travelers globally. As a result, the global market in thehospitality industry and the aviation industry was greatly impacted.

Post9/11 bombing Aviation security measures

Government policy and Regulations

Many changes have been made in the aviation industry following the11th September 2001 attacks of the USA (Itoand Lee, 2005). Immediately after the attacks, the USAcongress passed the Aviation and Transportation Security Act and theFederal Government created the Transportation and securityadministration (Coughlin, Cohen,and Khan, 2002). Today, it is a requirement by all airlinesthat passengers arrive at the airport 3 hours before departure. Thisis to give the security agencies opportunity to vet the passengers.All the international airports have been equipped with scanners tofacilitate screening of all the passengers including their baggage.There is also in flight security which was not there before.

Passenger and Luggage screening

Passenger screening at the airport has been intensified. TheTransportation Safety has come up with scanning machines whichsubject passengers to the state of undress during screening (Gkritza,Niemeier and Mannering, 2006). This has brought aboutcomplaints from passengers who feel that such screening causeembarrassment but cannot be ignored due to the sensitivity of thematter.Some of the new security measures has also come withchallenges. Another measure which has been taken by the airlines isthe locking of the cock pit. This makes it impossible for anybodyelse to enter the cockpit unless the pilot opens from inside.However, locking of the cockpit is one such example which is blamedfor the crash of the German wings crash.

Immigration laws

Besides the changes in the airport and aircraft security, new lawson immigration were also passed just one year after the bombing. Theimmigration policy was changed making it more difficult to gettourist visa and student visa for foreign nationals. There is alsocontinuous monitoring of foreigners who visit the United Sates. Lotsof biometric information is collected from the visitors. The wholesystem has complicated travels and visits to and from the UnitedStates of America. The new immigration laws have affected even thepeople of Latin America and Mexico though they did not have anythingto do with the bombing.

Domestic spying

In the USA, domestic spying is ongoing. The emails, phoneconversations and texts of citizens are constantly being monitored.This is because the US government is committed to protecting itscitizens. The Patriot Act allows National Security Agency (NSA) toconduct domestic spying of the citizens. Domestic spying haselicited serious debates and arguments citing that such acts infringethe right to privacy of other citizens. Even though this may be trueaccording to the bill of rights and other laws, there is a clausethat says that one person’s rights should not infringe the rightsof others. In the interest of the state therefore, domestic spying isdone to prevent collusion of the US citizens with other agencies orindividuals who may be keen to harm America.

Screening of the crew of the airlines is one of the moves that wasstarted after the bombing. Before, airport staff and the crew used toshow their staff cards to the security agents then left to go inwithout checking. Today, everyone is screened and every luggage isscreened and given security seals before they can be allowed into theairports or the waiting lounge. Nothing is left for chance since itis difficult to establish who is innocent and who is not. This makesscreening an important activity at the airport. Every airport alsohas the antiterrorism unit in which suspect cases or objects arereferred for further scrutiny.

Apron Protection

One of the areas of high risk at the airport is the apron. This isthe place where the aircraft is parked, refueled, loaded andunloaded. This is a high risk area since it can be an avenue formalicious people which can perform activities that can be dangerousto the passengers. These areas are currently under surveillance tomonitor all the activities that go on in the area. Any illegalactivities noted are reported immediately for action.

SecurityChallenges

Many improvements have been done towards the enhancement of securityat the airport and for the aircrafts. However, there are still somechallenges that exist and should be dealt with to ensure completesafety. It is evident that body scanning machines are not capable ofdetecting explosives creating loop holes that can still pose threatsto passengers and the airline crew (Elias,2009).&nbspAdditionally,even as much as the screening is being carefully done using draconianrules, being able to detect explosives is still a challenge.

One of the greatest challenges that security institutions have todeal with is the new wave of terrorism. Suicide bombers are still abig challenge since some of them have explosives right inside theirbodies which is difficult to screen even by the scanners. This haspotential risks in the aviation industry. Terrorists have takenvarious forms and come up with different tactics every day. It istherefore necessary for the security intelligence to think ahead ofthem and challenge them in their efforts to harm humanity. They comein the least suspected ways.

Tightening the rules at the immigration department is a good way ofdiscouraging the terrorists. However, this method is not effectivewhere true nationals of a particular country with genuine traveldocuments have been radicalized to carry out terrorist activities.This make fighting terrorism complex. Airline and airports are easytargets because of the many different people that they deal with. Itis also possible that some of the security agents can be sympatheticto terrorist groups and may aid the facilitation of their activitiesby sabotaging the security checks. This kind of situation makes itnecessary to constantly spy on the citizens especially the workers atthe airlines on the nature of their communication with others.

Sharing of information between the immigration and intelligenceservice on the people who are on the watch list is still inadequate.This makes the immigration to work independently of the intelligenceservice making the efforts uncoordinated hence ineffective.This makesthe immigration department to vet people depending on the rules whichhave been provided for in the immigration act but not working on theclues which are provided for by the intelligence department. Harmonybetween all the departments working on aviation security is essentialto make tight seals that cannot allow malicious individuals toinfiltrate.

MethodologyStudyarea

The study was conducted in two international airports in the USnamely, Hartsfield–JacksonAtlanta International Airport (HJA.) and LosAngeles International Airport ( LA ). In this study, HJA has beenreferred to as airport A while LA has been referred to as airport B. HJA is located in Atlanta, Georgia. It is one of the busiest airportsin the state of Georgia. It handles both the domestic andinternational flights. It also clears both passenger and cargoplanes. LA is located in California. It is the largest internationalairport in the United States of America.

Respondents

This study involved interviews of aviation security officers thatincluded airport staff and airline crews at two airports in theUnited States of America. The airport staff included those who offersecurity services at the airport. The airline crew includes those whooffer security for the airlines and the hospitality crew

Sampling.

Using Stratified random sampling, 100 respondents were interviewedusing a well-structured questionnaires from both Hartsfield–JacksonAtlanta International Airport (HJA.) and LosAngeles International Airport (L. A). Notably, each ofthe airport will form a strata from where 100 respondents wereinterviewed. Before the administration of the questionnaires, theywas tested on 10 respondents from both the airports in the need toremove the unnecessary question that made the interview period ratherlongAll the questionnaires were administered by well-trainedresearch assistants.

Dataanalysis

Data obtained by the questionnaires were fed into SPSS software forstatistical analysis. The results were carefully analyzed to revealthe security situation at the aircrafts and airports. Analysis wasdone to check on the human resources, the equipment and tools used insecurity as well as passenger awareness of the impacts of thesecurity apparatus. The results were displayed on charts and graphsand tables.

Ethicalconsiderations

All the ethical considerations were made during the study. Firstly,all the required permits and the necessary approvals were acquiredbefore the start of the interviews as required by law. The twoairports were notified in advance and permission sought to allow theresearch team to access the airports. All the respondents wereselected randomly and asked to participate in the interview withoutcoercion or persuasion. The issue of confidentiality was taken careof by ensuring that all the respondents responded to the interviewquestions in utmost privacy. The respondents were identified byunique numbers and all the information collected was only used forthe purpose of this study.

All the research assistants were trained on the use of politelanguage on the respondents and each team of the researchers wereheaded by a team leader who ensured that all the respondents werehandled with dignity. The objectives of the research were shared withthe respondents to give them the picture of why the research wasnecessary and why it was important for them to provide accurateinformation. All the procedure and protocols in questionnaireadministration will be observed.

Studylimitations

This study will not reveal the technical details of the securityapparatus and the complexity of the security organs due to thesensitivity of the issues. It will also not be able to tell us whothe real threats to security are or are likely to be. It will notoffer suggestions of exact activities that need to be put in place asthat would be preempting the techniques hence weakening the system.

HJAandLosAngeles International Airport (L A )Results

Socio-Economic Information

Table 1: Socio-economic characteristics of therespondents

no

Socio-economic characteristics

No. of respondents

Airport A.

Airport B

Total (%)

1

Age

&lt25

26-40

41-55

≥56

20

35

40

5

11

17

20

2

9

18

20

3

20

35

40

5

2

sex

Female

male

57

43

28

22

29

21

57

43

3

Employment level

Top

Middle

low

15

30

55

7

15

28

8

15

27

15

30

55

5

experience

&lt2

3-7

7&gt

14

62

24

5

35

12

9

27

12

14

64

22

Table 1 shows the age, sex, and employment level and experiencedistribution of the respondents. In general, majority of therespondents are aged between 41 and 55 closely followed by thosebetween 26 and 40. Generally, there are more female (57%) than male(43%) of the people who were sampled. Majority (64) of therespondents have between 3 to 7 years’ experience in the aviationindustry. Consequently, their understanding of the changing securityscenario is well substantiated.

Security measures

The incident of 9/11 attack led to the improvement and installationof various technological equipment and human resource measures. Table2 shows the security apparatus and their use at both airport A and B

Table2: Current security measures at the airport

attributes

Airport A

Airport B

Total %

Body Scanners

20

10

30

Metal Detectors

30

40

70

Passenger Vetting

10

5

15

Luggage search

50

43

93

Cockpit locking

45

40

85

Apron protection

30

50

80

total

Figure1. Comparison of the use of various security apparatus at bothAirport A and B

Respondent’swariness on impact of heightened security

The respondents were also asked on their awareness of the impact ofthe security situation and the impacts on the passengers and theworkers. Most of the respondents were very positive about the goodjob that was being done by the security officers. However, some werenot very happy with the work of the security personnel as can be seenfrom the table below.

Table3: Impact of security measures

attributes

Airport A

Airport B

total

positive

40

36

76

Negative

7

5

12

No. idea

3

9

12

50

50

100

Figure2: Comparison of the opinions of the respondents on both airport Aand B

Need for improvement

The respondents were also asked whether the security initiatives wereadequate and were able to prevent future attacks. The table belowshows their response.

Table4: Respondents general feel on the securityinitiatives

Security initiatives

Airport A

Airport B

%

Adequate

27

30

57

Needs improvement

20

14

34

No idea

3

6

9

50

50

100

Figure3: A chart showing whether there is need to improve the securityinterventions at Airport B

Figure4Chart showing whether there is need to improve the securityinterventions at Airport A

From the results, it is evident that there are various techniquesthat have been employed towards enhancing aviation security. However,as can be seen from the results, some of the gadgets are not used100% on the passengers. This is likely due to their few numbers ateach airport and the large number of passengers who have to bescreened. It is also interesting to note that some people regard thesecurity initiatives very positively while others think they are awaste of valuable time. There are also afew who have no idea of whatis going on.

Many respondents agreed that there were significant changes in theaviation security after the 9/11 bombing of the United States ofAmerica. Some of the passengers were categorical to say that some ofthe security measures put in place such as the state of undress wasso embarrassing to them. However, some passengers confirmed that thesecurity efforts and interventions gives them confidence wheneverthey travel. Despite the embarrassment got from the scanners, itgives them the confidence that this is what everyone goes through sothat they can be sure nobody poses any danger to the other person onboard. It also emerged from the study that thee are new threats tothe security situation which still remain a challenge. Terrorism andradicalization of the natives who then become sympathetic to theterror groups remain difficult to deal with.

Discussion

Aviation security is one area that cannot be compromised by anystandards. Lindberg and Lindberg (1991) argued that security at theairport is important since it deals with thousands of people enteringor leaving the country. This makes it very special. The fact that thepeople being dealt with at the airport are travelers makes itdifficult to understand them and malicious people can easily takeadvantage since they are not easily singled out due to large numberof people passing through the airports.

The results have indicated that not all the security measures put inplace are used 100% for 100% of the passengers and the goods. Thismeans that there are still security gaps in the system that needs tobe improved. Part of the reason for which the gadgets are not used oneveryone is the high number of passengers who have to be screenedbefore every flight. For this reason, upon preliminary scrutiny, someof the passengers are scanned using metal detectors and not thescanners while some pass through the metal detectors as well as thebody scanners.

The initial security initiatives in the aviation industry weresimple and predictable. However, it is because of their simplicitythat made the 9/11 bombing of the United States of America complexand very destructive. Enhancement of the security since then hasbrought about changes in both the soft ware and the hard ware of thesecurity apparatus. It has also brought about changes in the activityof the personnel as well as the infrastructure at the airports and inthe aircrafts.

The passengers pointed out thatmere imagination that something bad may happen to one during thejourney is not interesting. This is why it is necessary to intensifythe security at the airport. According to Srivatanakul, (2005),security should be enhanced at the airport at all times to instillconfidence to the passengers and workers. According to the peopleinvolved in security at the airport, the changes have given them morework and the shifts are longer since more people are required toperform the tasks. The security personnel have to be keen to avoidany confusion with the luggage or the passengers to be screened.

This study has revealed that morestringent measures should be put on security. This is becausesecurity threats are dynamic and change with the changes that occurin everyday life. The issues of terrorism for example should be takeninto consideration whenever security operations are put in place. Itis necessary to come up with methods of fighting enmity in order torealize global peace. Even though this option appears difficult toachieve, world leaders and politicians are capable of working towardsthe achievement of global peace.

Fifty seven percent of the respondents agreed that the securitymeasures were adequate and were able to avert threats to theindustry. However, from the study, 34% of the respondents suggestedthat various improvements should be made in the aviation securitysector. They argued that some of the initiatives are a waste of timebut did not yield much fruit. Also, it can be reasoned that since thesecurity threats continue to evolve, so should the security measures.They argued that the people who are determined to harm others areconstantly looking for opportunity and study gaps in the securitysystem in order to attach. They have suggested that other than thesecurity system just focusing on the bombs and other dangerousweapons, they should focus on the people who carry the bombs. Thereis need to always think ahead of the terrorists and the attackers soas to prevent loss of life and destruction of property.

It can be observed from the results that the security operations forboth airports A and B are similar. This is probably because allairports are guided by the convention of international Aviationguidelines. No airports are allowed to operate without meeting thestandard guidelines especially for security personnel and apparatus.

Conclusion

Aviation security is among the most priority areas in many economiessince it safeguards both the national and international interests.Airport security takes care of the countries in the sense that it isthe entry and exit point. Care has to be taken in order to safe guardthe passengers, the crew and the infrastructure there in from damageby malicious terrorists or just to prevent countries from losingtheir resources without due compensation or flooding their marketswith undesired goods. The 9/11 bombing revolutionized aviationsecurity making it a special subject of concern. Lots of improvementswere made on the security and immigration policies making acquisitionof visa for travel to the United States more stringent. However,there are some challenges which are yet to be dealt with in order toseal up the security loopholes. Cooperation of all the departmentsinvolved in security such as Transportation Safety Authority,Immigration and homeland security is highly encouraged. Aviationsecurity threats are constantly dynamic and keep changing from timeto time and so should the security apparatus. A lot more still needsto be done towards ensuring aviation security. Finally, politicalsolution which can help in the realization of global peace to avertterrorism is also envisioned.

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