Gender,Sexuality, and Economics
Thegender-based form of discrimination has existed throughout humanhistory. This can be confirmed by cultures that emphasize on genderroles, where duties and rewards for different tasks are based on thegender of an individual, instead of the level of skills, experience,and the nature of the job (Sultana 256). This form of discriminationhas denied women the opportunity to participate fairly in theeconomic activities. This paper will provide the analysis of thechapter "gender & sexuality and economics” and explain whywomen will not have it all.
Thediscrimination of women in the places of work is still a commonphenomenon, in spite of the efforts applied to enhance genderequality. Women face numerous forms of discrimination in the processof developing their career. The most common form discrimination isexperienced during recruitment. Although many companies claim to be"equal opportunity employers" that recruit their members ofstaff on the basis of their qualifications, it is harder for women tofind jobs than women, even in cases where the both the genders haveequal levels of experience and academic qualification. Research showsthat most of the companies use excuses (such as the need to relocateafter recruitment, long working hours, night shifts, and extensivetravelling) to discourage women from access the employmentopportunities (Gbereibie 102). Women are denied the job opportunitieswithout being given the chance to deal with the job-relatedchallenges.
Thefew women who are successful in getting employment opportunities facenew forms of discrimination at the places of work, which limit theirchances of demonstrating their capabilities. For example, maleemployees earn more than their female counterparts who have the samelevel of qualification and carry out similar job-related tasks.Research shows that female workers who are employed on a full-timebasis in the U.S. earn a median weekly wage of $ 657, which is 80 %of the amount of money earned by their male counterparts (Gery-Bowen69). The fact that these employees have the same type of job andqualification indicates that the only explanation for disparity interms of compensation is gender difference that acts in the favor ofmale members of staff.
Thereare three key factors that can be used to explain the phenomenon ofgender-based discrimination in the workplace and social settings. Thefirst factor is the historical concept of gender segregation, whichhas existed in the entire human history. The ancient and some moderncommunities hold that women were created to assist men (Gery-Bowen69). These communities divide roles on the basis of gender, wheremost of the household tasks are reserved for women and professionaljobs allocated to men. The idea of gender segregation has affectedthe mindset of many people to-date, even in the developed nations.For example, about 51.3 % of the women in the U.S. engage inhousehold tasks, while only 20.2 % of the men are willing toundertake similar tasks (Gery-Bowen 66). A large number of employersbelieve in the concept of gender roles, which results indiscrimination against women.
Secondly,the male-dominated management teams that govern modern corporationscreate policies and strategies that favor the male workforce. Membersof these management teams have preconceived ideas about the positionof women in the society and roles that should only be allocated tomale employees (Gery-Bowen 69). In addition, these management teamshave placed a glass ceiling beyond which women cannot go. Althoughcountries (such as the U.S.) have strong laws that encourage fairnessin terms of promotion, women are more than twice less likely to getmid and senior management positions compared to men (Gbereibie 103).The kind of challenges that women go through to access leadership andmanagerial positions have nothing to do with the level of skills,academic qualification, and experience, but they are deliberatelycreated by men who dominate the management and recruitment teams.
Thethird factor is inferiority complex that has made women to believethat mid and top management positions can only be taken by men. Manyscholars who have focused on the issue of gender-based discriminationin the workplaces have blamed men for imposing challenges that limitthe capacity of women to access managerial positions. However, somestudies have identified women as their own enemies, where themajority of them consider themselves to be inferior and unqualifiedto assume management roles. It is estimated that about 26 % of womenwho are employed in different organizations have an inferioritycomplex that they inherited from patriarchal cultural systems (Ibun120). This has limited the desire of women to look for managerial aswell as top leadership position.
Gender-baseddiscrimination affected women disproportionately. Different forms ofdiscrimination can be attributed to factors that are imposed byculture, men, and women. The culture has made employers to believethat there are professional roles and positions that can only be heldby men. Patriarchal culture has also imposed inferiority complex onwomen, which has reduced their urge to look for promotion and fightfor the establishment of equal compensation policies. In addition,the male-dominated management as well as recruitment teams put aglass ceiling that determines how far women can go in terms of theircareer and social development. A combination of these factors hasdenied women the opportunity to have all that they have been fightingfor.
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