DOCTORAL QUALIFYING EXAM 29
Question 1: Fine Arts
The study of fine arts in school has been affected by variouschallenges. Often, the management in these schools contemplates theelimination of fine arts as the budgets are too tight to accommodatethese subjects. Some administrators have argued that fine arts areunnecessary in the curriculum while others have viewed it as a majorcontributing factor to the overall performances of students. Sincefine arts are an integral part in developing well-roundedindividuals, enhancing academic achievement, and modifying thebehaviors of individuals, it is necessary to maintain the fine artsprograms in K-12 learners. However, with the limited resources inthese schools, it is necessary to come up with other sustainablesources of income that can maintain the program.
Rationale for Decision
With the shift of the school curriculum towards common subjects suchas mathematics and sciences amongst many other familiar issues, onewonders about the fate of fine arts within institutions(Stiegelbauer, 2008). Community outreach programs provide studentswith an opportunity to get involved in services that related to themon a consistent basis. Fine art is an integral part of thedevelopment of any human being. With the limited resources in the Kto 12 schools, community outreach programs become an essentialelement in ensuring that all students receive the benefits that areassociated with these types of programs. Often, community outreachprograms involve different institutions and organizations that cometogether to participate in the programs that have specific names,missions, and objectives of the learning students (Guetzkow, 2002).Through partnership among the organizations, the groups formed alwayshave the obligation of providing instructions relating to art,materials, supplies, monetary donations. This is to enhance andimplement the fine art education programs within the community, andalso mentor the learners through these programs.
Members of such programs give thousands of volunteer hours to supportthe success of the course through the achievement of objectives.Through support of all the members of the organization participatingin the programs, students of all ages and levels of ability in the Kto 12 education systems and schools are likely to benefit. Some ofthe different levels of ability likely to take advantage of theseprograms include the students with special needs, life-careresidents, students with Alzheimer’s disease, and the sick student(Guetzkow, 2002). Artists who come from particular regionscontribute to the success of these programs through generosity interms of talent-sharing and time. These artists dedicate their timeto perform as a way of educating the audiences.
Fine art will only be able to make a difference when there is aunique collaboration between different institution and organizationswho will hence be able to provide services and a venue for offeringservice that is related to art to the students. The communityoutreach program centers will have the potential of making asignificant difference regarding the quality of life that students inthis region are likely to lead. The centers will offer world classentertainments to the learners and also offer a broad range ofservices and programs that will bring a variety of performing artiststo the centers. The affordability and the accessibility of theseprograms become necessary in determining the number of students thatare likely to learn from these kinds of programs. The price levelsfor particular events should be lower so as to give all the studentsan opportunity to attend (Stiegelbauer, 2008). On the same note, thecenters for the community outreach programs can free and discounttickets to the selected events by working together with the socialservice organizations. Discounted tickets are likely to eliminate thebarriers that are associated with affordability and accessibility(Bradley, Bonbright & Dooling, 2013).
The focus on education and outreach is likely to set them apart. Theprogram can accommodate a large number of students through thespecial arrangements that are set aside specifically for thestudents. Lectures can be introduced before the shows to highlightthe essential aspects of these programs with regards to education(Guetzkow, 2002). These types of outreach programs provide studentswith an avenue carry out their performances. Due to lack of rentalrates associated with students when they use the community outreachprograms sites, they have unique opportunities to perform infavorable locations. This is likely to elevate the dreams and theambitions of the students regarding fine arts. Community outreachprograms for educational purposes play an essential role in thedevelopment of tourism and economic factors (Bradley, Bonbright &Dooling, 2013). Students and other attendees of events related tothese programs. They originate from different states, regions, andcommunities hence contributing a significant number of resources tothe local economy. Therefore, supporting the community outreachprograms assist students in learning fine arts.
Identification of Stakeholders
Myriad of reasons arise when it comes to providing support for finearts in K-12 institutions. Promotion of real prosperity,strengthening of economic vitality and innovations are some of thereasons why fine art is part of the curriculum in K-12 learninginstitutions. Therefore, exceptional art education and communityoutreach programs should involve as many people as possible (Razali &Anwar, 2011). These individuals should also have an interest in anyof the numerous interventions, initiative, projects or effortspresent in these programs. Involvement of a vast number ofindividuals has a various positive effects. It provides bettercommunity support while and provide more advanced ideas on thecomponents to be incorporated into the community programs (IIED,2005). To conduct a participatory process that provides all thepossible advantages of the community outreach programs, theinvolvement of stakeholders is essential. Stakeholders are theindividuals that are affected by decisions made. Interested partiesin this instance should have a keen interest in the political world,a philosophical realm and the academic efforts (Futaki, 2010).
Stakeholder groups that will be part of the community educationoutreach program can be categorized according to their relationshipswith the success in the community outreach programs (Razali &Anwar, 2011). Primary stakeholders, secondarily interested parties,and key stakeholders are the groups of stakeholders that areessential in the community outreach programs of fine arts in the K-12schools. The primary stakeholders, in this case, are the groups ofindividuals that are directly affected by the effort in the outreachprogram. The key players can either be affected positively ornegatively by the actions involved in the program. In this instance,the main stakeholders are the students in the K-12 institutions, theteachers in these schools, the professionals in the art departments,and the owners of the centers and venues where these lessons willtake place, amongst many other individuals (Futaki, 2010). Secondarystakeholders in the community outreach programs are the people andthe groups that will be indirectly affected by the program. Thesecondary stakeholders will include the institution and thecommunities since the program will produce better personnel (IIED,2005). The key stakeholders, on the other hand, belong to both theprimary and the secondary groups of stakeholders. These are thesponsors, the donors, and the institutions that come together tosupport these programs. The government is part of this group ofindividuals. The key stakeholders will negatively or positivelyimpact the attainment of the objectives of the program (Futaki,2010).
The identification of the appropriate stakeholders to be involved inthe research gathering phase includes several processes and elements.Brainstorming is one of the methods that can be used in theidentification of stakeholders. It involves getting people in theorganization together. The officials and other personnel thatinvolved in the process come up with an idea that can provide thebasis of the possible stakeholders (Futaki, 2010). Brainstorming willhelp the research team to generate ideas that are unique to thestakeholder group. The use of semi-structured interviews is anotherway that can be utilized for the identification of possiblestakeholders. The semi-structured interviews are likely to possesssimple checklists of issues that are used to guide and check therequirements that are necessary for stakeholders during theinterviews. Digging up the existing data is another method that canbe utilized to shed light on stakeholders through the use of therecorded materials. Probing and rummaging reports are likely toprovide more information regarding on different stakeholders.Preparation of timelines can provide antiquity of links andinfluences of specific policies, institutions, and processes (Razali& Anwar, 2011). Diagrams are essential in the identification ofstakeholders as they help the people involved in the research togauge what stakeholders have regarding the plan to be implemented.Additionally, diagrams are necessary for stimulating discussions thatinvolve the non-literate and the literate persons.
Curricular and Program
The success of fine arts programs in the curriculum is determined bythe careful planning and comprehensive implementation of the programin itself. However, several issues emerge in the evaluation ofmatters that are related to the practice and teaching of fine arts.This can consequently affect the implementation of community-basedprograms (Barresi, 2013). Working with schools in outreach programscan be quite difficult since most of the time schools becomereluctant to participate in activities that are outside theirjurisdiction. Moreover, institutions are unwilling to engage in thesekinds of activities as they tend to view them as a burden on them.This is the case no matter how small the charge might seem (Jaycox etal., 2006). On the same note, teachers might be reluctant toparticipate in these activities that they think might take away someof the study hours of the students, hence preventing efficientlearning of other subjects. Teaching the community outreach programsmight also be viewed as a ploy that will continue to burden teachersand administrators
In instances where the educators and schools might agree toparticipate in getting involved with the community outreach programs,communicating with the administration and the teachers can prove tobe a challenge. This is because they might become rarely availableover the telephone lines and networks (Jaycox et al., 2006). Theimplementation process of the community outreach program can also bechallenging when it comes to obtaining timely and efficient help fromschools. Consequently, the location of students can be tricky sincenot all teachers and administrators are likely to support thecommunity outreach programs and its underlying objectives. Someschool calendars tend to be complex hence leading to a complicatedbell schedule that can influence the ability of the school toaccommodate outreach activities and programs (CDS, 2004). In previouscases, the implementation of different programs in schools has provento be difficult as the administrations of the schools change theirminds at the last minute. At times, teachers are not informed of thepresence of new programs in the systems hence they impact the totalnumber of students who attended the scheduled sessions.
Feedback is provided by students based on the activities that theyengage in during the processes that take place in the learning offine arts (Barresi, 2013). The response is due to the implementationand evaluation of the processes that occur during the project. Themanagement involved in the program has the option of altering it tofit with the schedules of the schools and hence ensure all of thestudents involved benefit from these programs (CDS, 2004). However,changes in the program can prove to be problematic and affect theability to achieve the objectives. The substantial variations in theprogram will require the program management to re-evaluate theeffectiveness of the program.
There has been neglect of the creative aspect of fine art as well asthe broader understanding of the component of this type of art withanalysis of the legendary performance of the art. The educators inthe outreach programs are required to build assessments thatauthentically measure and monitor the achievements of students fromall perspectives of the fine art (CDS, 2004). The representation inthe assessment should focus on the occurrences in the art studios,music theaters, and rehearsal rooms amongst other avenues that theprogram will be utilized in helping students learn about fine art(Barresi, 2013). The program should hence encompass a broad spectrumof practices with the aim of the accomplishing the above objectives.These widespread practices will address the varieties of learningstyles that students possess.
Economic, Legal and Ethical Issues
Collaborations between institutions in the community and schools haveimmense impacts on the staff and students. In the K-12 systems,community programs affect the economic, ethical values, and legalissues that are associated with reforms in the community outreachprograms. Studies have established that economic impacts relating tocommunity outreach programs are present for both for staff membersand students. Students spend less and achieve more through thelearning process in the programs. In comparison with regular classesof fine arts, it is evident that the community outreach programs helpthe student to save a significant amount of resources. On the samenote, the staff benefits from the positive impacts of these programson the performance levels of students, and hence there is a reductionin the amount resources used to purchase certain equipments in theclassroom (NEH, 2016).
Several legal issues are associated with the implementation ofcommunity outreach programs in school setups. The programs have thepotential of having policy impacts in the school systems. Such kindsof results can have a significant influence on the educationalpolicy, hence contributing to more effective school reforms. However,there are many factors that work together with the outreach programsto impact the process of adoption and implementation of policies. Thechanges that are brought about by the outreach programs have effectson the future connections that the schools and the education systemsare likely to have with families and students (Pacific, 2010).Studies reveal that many times, the reforms in the school systembuilds support and involvement programs for parents and the generalcommunity. Therefore, the community becomes more committed toensuring that the lessons that are associated with fine arts becomesuccessful in the achievement of the set objectives and goals.
There are several implications that community outreach programs haveregarding ethical issues and moral behaviors. Moral credibility andleadership are some of the benefits that are associated with thesetypes of programs. The staff and the students in the K-schools, deemit essential to work towards the betterment of the world. Thesepeople strive for social change, alleviation of suffering, socialjustice as well as the fostering of the dignity of human beingsthrough the services and the activities that they engage. Teachersfind it as an obligation to work with the community in theenhancement of talents that are related to fine arts. On the samenote, students consider it moral obligation to help each other toenhance the learning process of fine arts. The professional and legalfactors also emerge as an ethical issue that most community outreachprograms tend to shape and foster (Chapter 19, 2015). The staff, aswell as the students who involve themselves in these programs, areheld to specific standards and code of ethics to ensure that theybecome successful. Members adhere to these specific codes ofstandards as the violation of these rules has severe repercussions.
The education sector has undergone transformations over the years.This has led to the establishment of standards to govern the qualityof education. The level of rigor has been necessitated by variousfactors that have occurred. The relevant authorities are required toensure that all the learning institutions adopt these rules. Thelegislations in the sector may apply to particular states or theentire education sector in the United States. Some of the standardsthat have been set include “The No Child Left Behind Act” and theCommon Core State Standards Initiative.
The No Child Left Behind Act
This legislation was passed by the United States Congress in 2001,and it authorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act that hadbeen implemented before. This act included a provision that appliedto the disadvantaged students. However, by 2015, the legislation hadbeen stripped of almost all the provisions leading the development ofa new law known as Every Student Succeeds Act. The latter transferredthe remaining features to the State authorities (Meier & Wood,2004).
The NCLB was aimed at offering support to the standard-basededucation reform by providing high standards of learning andestablishing attainable goals for the purpose of improving theindividual outcomes in education. All the different states wererequired to develop assessments of basic skills. After that, theStates were required to give students across various levels theassessments as a way of receiving federal funds. However, thelegislation failed to provide a national standard that all the Stateassessments were required to meet. As such, they were free to developtheir respective standards.
The Act is credited with having increased the role of the nationalgovernment in the education sector by advocating for annual testingand significant changes in financing. The federal authorities alsoestablished a system for analyzing annual academic progress, and therequired standards expected of the teachers (Meier & Wood, 2004).Based on the importance of the role played by education in theeconomy, the bill was passed with bipartisan support.
Provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
This legislation required all public learning institutions toadminister an annual examination to the students. The tests were tobe conducted by every State. For the schools that were recipients ofTitle I funding based the Elementary and Secondary Education Act thatwas implemented in 1965, a target was set. The Adequate YearlyProgress (AYP) was aimed at ensuring that there were notableimprovements of the students (Meier & Wood, 2004). Specifically,this law related to the performances of the fifth graders over theyears. The students were required to obtain higher tests scores thanthe previous year for their institutions to qualify for federalfunding.
However, in instances where the schools continually posted poorresults over a considerable period, steps were taken to improve theperformance of the institutions. Schools that failed to meet theadequate yearly progress for two consecutive years were required todevelop a corresponding two-year improvement plan on the particularsubjects that had posted poor performances. If this trend continuedfor the third continuous year, the institution would be required tooffer supplementary educational services to the students who postedpoor results. Additionally, if the learning institution failed tomeet the target for the fourth year in a row, the school would embarkon the development of a corrective action. In this case, some of theoptions that would be taken into consideration would include awholesome change of staff and extending the learning periods.Additionally, there might be a change in curriculum. The fifth yearof failure would culminate in the development of plans to restructurethe entire institutions. Such arrangements would be implemented thefollowing year in case the institution failed to meet the expectedstandards of performance. In the worst case scenario, the schoolwould be closed down or converted into a charter school (Meier &Wood, 2004).
However, when developing the provisions of the adequate yearlyprogress (AYP), the objectives have to be in adherence with variousrequirements of law. The targets set must not only be measurable butalso attainable depending on the needs of particular groups ofpupils. Such groups of students would include students with learningdeficiencies, those with limited English proficiency, those fromeconomically disadvantaged households, and the physically challenged.Moreover, the objectives must be in line with the need to have thestudents at the proficient level within a minimum period of twelveyears.
The adequate yearly progress must be specific to each Stateassessment, in addition to being evaluated at the school level. Incases where institutions fail to meet the minimum targets for twocontinuous years, they would be identified for improvements. Theassessment results have to be released to each of the specific groupsof learners. For the evaluation process to be efficient,approximately 95% of the each of the specific groups of students hadto participate. Finally, the states would use up to three years ofdata in determining the adequate yearly progress of each institution(Peterson & West, 2003).
For the standards of living to be achieved, the act has set theminimum bar for the teachers. The success of the program depends onthe performance of the tutors and as such, they are required to beeffective during their interactions with the learners. The term“highly qualified” has been utilized in stating the level eachteacher is expected to achieve. However, the term is relative sinceall the States have their unique levels that they consider as “highlyqualified.” In addition to this, each state has what is considered“one high, challenging standard.” However, the curriculumstandards apply to all the learners and must be utilized by all thestudents within the city. This means that all the towns and locationswithin a state will use the same curriculum standards on theirstudents (Peterson & West, 2003).
Based on this analysis, it is evident that the legislation is aimedat improving the teaching standards in all schools across the UnitedStates. Therefore, it has an effect on both the teachers andstudents. The debate still rages as to whether the legislation hasbeen effective in promoting the learning in the United States. Thedispute has attracted both positive and negative feedbacks with aparticular group of individuals claiming that localization ofeducation is not appropriate (Peterson & West, 2003). However,others indicate that the legislations take into account the specificneeds of the society.
Common Core State Standard Initiatives
The common core state standard initiative is a learning initiativesponsored by the National Governors Association (NGA) in conjunctionwith the Council of Chiefs State School Officers (CCSSO). Thisinitiative is in the United States and seeks to establish what isexpected of K-12 students concerning English language arts andmathematics at the end of each level of studies. The primary aim ofthese standards is to ensure that there are regular educationalrequirements for all the States (Kendall, 2011). This is tofacilitate a smooth transition for those graduating from high schooland seeking to be admitted to a credit-bearing course in eithertwo-year or a four-year program. By having common standards oflearning, the students are adequately prepared for the workplaceenvironment (Kendall, 2011).
The education standards have been adopted by forty two states in theUnited States. The States that are yet to adopt them include SouthCarolina, Indiana, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas, Virginia among others.On the other hand, the State of Minnesota only adopted the standardrelating to English language art and not the mathematics standards.Some of the States that had initially approved the common core havesince decided to have them replaced. They include Oklahoma, SouthCarolina, and Indiana.
The English Language Arts
The English language arts standards cover a wide area of the learningprocess. Some of the factors taken into consideration includereading, writing, listening and speaking, language, and media andtechnology (Morrow, Shanahan & Wixson, 2013). The common core hasestablished that as student passes through each grade, thecomplexities of the learning content also increases. Therefore theprogram ensures that there is a progressive development of readingmaterial to facilitate the learning process (Kendall, 2011).Additionally, there are no reading lists accompanying the readingstandard since the students are expected to go through a range ofclassical and contemporary literature (Coil, 2011).
In terms of writing, the core standards have identified three majorareas to base logical arguments (Morrow, Shanahan & Wixson,2013). These include relevant evidence, claims, and solid reasoning.Opinion writing is also encouraged from K-5 standards. The learningenvironment is meant to provide a short, detailed survey similar tothose the students are likely to face in their daily careers infuture. The presentation of findings in the research conducted bystudents is regarded as critical to their growth and collegepreparedness.
Reading and writing are the primary components of an English languagecurriculum. However, the content is written to enable the learnersevaluate complex information and evidence. This system of educationalso encourages one-on-one settings within the classroom. Sucharrangements can be accomplished in both the formal and informalpresentations during the learning process. The issuance of vocabularyinstructions is performed through a series of strategies (Ryan,Frazee & Kendall, 2012). These include reading, directinstruction and a conglomerate of conversations to enable thelearners develop the appropriate skills. As such, the students willbe expected to use formal English in their academic work. However,the students should be aware of the changes in communication in the21st Century and be able to express themselves in the appropriatelanguage depending on the context of conversation. The common corealso provides that the students should be aware to indicate theirunderstanding vocabulary by reading, writing, speaking and listening.
The formal evaluation of this initiative was expected to beimplemented in the 2014/2015 school year. The decision on the mostappropriate assessment method to be used is based on the educationagencies in the individual states. However, the evaluation processadvocates for computer-based exams that would include minimalconstructed responses (Ryan, Frazee & Kendall, 2012). This wouldbe different with from the Standardized Tests that have been utilizedover the years.
The major point in this case relates to whether educational standardsshould be a national or a local responsibility. This is a topic thathas attracted varied opinions from the stakeholders. There are thosewho support local management of the education systems whereas othersbelieve that the entire process should be managed from the nationalplatform. Those in support of the local administration of theeducation sector have quoted several benefits that have been obtainedas a result of the implementation of the “No Child Left BehindAct.” According to this argument, each state has distinct featuresthat make it different from the others. Therefore, the act allows thestate to develop its assessment based on its specific needs. Theregulations and evaluation procedures take into account the distinctfeatures rather than using a standard tool for evaluation.Additionally, the act ensures that assessment is based on the groupof students under consideration. This ensures that there is fairnessin the education sector. On the other hand, those against thelocalization of the process of learning indicate that there should beuniformity in the education sector to ensure a comparison analysisacross all the states. To them, the core standards should beapplicable to all and sundry without any particular attention beinggiven to certain groups.
The learning process has experienced massive changes over the years.With the integration of technology in various sectors of the economy,the education sector is witnessing massive changes (Voeller, 2006).Technology has allowed the inception of different forms of learningthat did not exist previously. Some of the new developments in thelearning process include the introduction of distance learning, webcourses, and online instruction learning. The three mentionedlearning procedures all depend on the use of technology rather thanthe physical availabilities of the learners (Fenton & Watkins,2010).
Distance learning is defined as the education of students that maynot necessarily be physically available in a classroom. The course isconducted in three broad forms namely hybrid, blended, and 100%complete instruction (Fenton & Watkins, 2010). This learningplatform provides learners with the opportunity to interact withtheir tutors through the World Wide Web among other technologies. Thelearning is facilitated by the use of two modes of delivery. Theseinclude synchronous learning and asynchronous learning (Voeller,2006). In the former, all the members of “class” are presentduring the lesson. In essence, it resembles a traditional classroomdespite the participants being present remotely. With the use of atimetable, this form of distance learning is more organized and usesvarious types of technology that include direct-broadcast satellite,video conferencing, and live streaming among other technologies.
On the other hand, asynchronous learning involves the learnersaccessing the teaching materials during their won free time(Discenza, Howard & Schenk, 2003). This type of learning is moreflexible since the students are not required to be together at anygiven time. Mail correspondence, the oldest form of distance learningis utilized in this case. Additionally, the learning content can bedelivered through various media such as electronic mail, video andaudio recordings, message board forums, and voicemails (Fenton &Watkins, 2010).
Web-based learning is also known as e-learning, and it involves alearning process whereby instructions are delivered over the internetor through at any given time (Siddiqui, 2004). This form of educationalso includes the issuance of instructions through the corporateintranet to the browser-equipped learners. There are two major modelsif this form of learning. The synchronous framework is instructorfacilitated whereas the asynchronous model is self-directed. Thereare various ways through which instructions can be delivered to thestudents. These include web broadcasts, learning portals and screencam tutorials (Discenza, Howard & Schenk, 2003).
The learning process depends on a series of factors. The debate onthe use of the traditional classroom and the integration oftechnology has been highlighted with the introduction of the learningdisabilities. This paper will provide background information on aprimary form of learning disability namelyAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD). This type of thedisorder is likely to affect school-going children between the agesof seven and seventeen. In addition to analyzing the learningdisorder, the study investigates a CDC report on the plight of thelearning process. The CDC study report was completed in 2002.Finally, the paper will determine the efficacy of using technology asthe sole tool for developing student success and the relevantacademic achievement.
An individual suffering from the ADD disorder is likely to experienceseveral distinct characteristics. The first one is the inability toconcentrate and stay focused. The student is likely to have massiveproblems in staying attentive during the lessons. Their attentioncapacity is likely to diminish considerably and as such, they will bemost likely be distracted by irrelevant sounds and sights. Moreover,they are highly likely to get bored even before the completion of atask. The symptoms exhibited by students suffering from this learningdisorder are not as severe as those of other disorders such ashyperactivity and impulsivity. In this regard, the various symptomsof lack of concentration include zoning out during conversations. Inthis case, the student will not even realize that they have driftedout of a conversation. They will also be unable to stay on track whengiven specific tasks to accomplish. The lack of attention is likelyto affect the students during the lessons since reading and writingmight become extensively challenging. The students are likely toexperience difficulties in the completion of the simplest of tasks.Finally, one is likely to have poor listening skills and as such,will find it hard to follow instructions in class.
Another symptom of ADD is hyperfocus. Even though the earlier symptomdiscussed the inability of most students to focus on a particularsubject, this form of symptom occurs in instances whereby the studentis likely to become absorbed in tasks that are deemed as stimulatingand rewarding. This is a kind of occurrence that is considered to bea coping mechanism for distraction and limiting chaos. At times, thischaracteristic might be so high that an individual will be obliviousof other actions around him/her. This feature can, however, lead tomore productivity when channeled to the appropriate activities.
Disorganization and forgetfulness are other characteristics of ADD.The life of the student will seem chaotic and out of control in mostinstances. The learners are likely to find it difficult to stayorganized. Sorting out available tasks becomes a greater challenge tothe student to an extent that their work is of poor quality.Prioritization and keeping track of tasks and responsibilities islikely to be primary problems for the learners. Poor time managementand non-completion of tasks and class assignments will lead to poorperformance by the scholars. Some of the common symptoms of that canbe attributed to forgetfulness and disorganizations include poororganizational skills in class and at work. Moreover, such studentsare also likely to procrastinate and postpone the completion of mosttasks. Therefore starting and finishing of classroom projects will bedeemed as tiring by the student. Due to lack of time managementskills, the student is likely to suffer from chronic lateness andmisplace their belongings. Finally, the learners will forget tocomplete their tasks within the given timeframe (Vogel, 1998).
The inability to inhibit one`s behaviors, responses and comments canbe attributed to impulsivity. This is another symptom of ADD.Impulsive students are likely to act swiftly and react withoutnecessarily taking into account the consequences of their actions.They are more likely to disrupt the lessons and rush through taskswithout going through instructions (Vogel, 1998). The learnersexhibiting such characteristics are therefore more likely to putthemselves in risky situations. One may be considered to be unable tocontrol their impulses if they have a habit of frequentlyinterrupting proceedings in the classroom and poor self-control. Suchstudents are likely to be rude and show recklessness in theiractions. Finally, such learners will probably show an inability tobehave in socially acceptable ways (Vogel, 1998).
The other features shown by students suffering from ADD includeemotional difficulties and hyperactivity or restlessness. Withregards to the former, the victim may be unable to manage theirfeelings. This is more prominent when it involves anger managementtechniques. Universal emotions attributed to the emotional symptomsof ADD include a sense of underachievement by the student regardingthe classwork. The students might also feel frustrated and stressedout when dealing with various activities. Irritability and moodswings are some of the features of emotional breakdown. Moreover, itbecomes extensively difficult for the students to stay motivated.They are therefore hypersensitive to criticism and have shortexplosive tempers. Low self-esteem and sense of insecurity are othersymptoms that characterize an individual suffering from ADD (Vogel,1998).
Hyperactivity in the other hand relates to highly active symptoms byindividuals. Additionally one is always on the go. The commonsymptoms that are attributed to hyperactivity include restlessnessand agitation, ability to take risks and constant fidgeting (Vogel,1998). These are some of the factors that are likely to affect thestudents in their quest to learn.
From the summary of health statistics provided, various conclusionscan be drawn. The analysis relates to a comparison analysis of thenumber of children, those with learning disabilities and the numberwith attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The study considersthe children between 3 and 17 years (Center for Disease Control andPrevention, 2013). There are three grouping of the ages namely 3-4years, 5-11 years, 12-17years. Additionally, the study finds the raceof the research subjects, the family structures, family incomes, andthe poverty levels. In addition to this, the study took intoconsideration the place of residence, current health status andreligion of the participants. The results indicated trends within thepopulation (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013).
The number of males suffering involved in the project was relativelyhigher than that of the females. In the case of the latter, thenumber of male students suffering from attentive deficithyperactivity disorder was relatively greater than those sufferingfrom learning disabilities. Of all the age groups utilized in thestudy, the 12-17 years age bracket had the largest number of childrenwith learning disabilities and attentive deficit hyperactivitydisorder, followed by 5-11 years, and finally 3-4 years (Center forDisease Control and Prevention, 2013). The results also indicatedthat among the children of one race, the Whites had the highestnumber of children with learning disabilities and ADHD. They wereclosely followed by the Black Americans and the American Indians. TheAsians and Native Hawaiian followed in the fourth and fifth placesrespectively. On the other hand, when considering mixed races, acombination of African Americans and Whites had the largest number ofchildren with learning disabilities with American Indian and whitehaving the least cases of learning disorders (Center for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2013).
Taking into consideration the family factors, children with bothmother and father had the highest number of cases of learningdisabilities. After that, those with mothers and no fathers followedand then those with fathers and no mothers (Center for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2013). The group with the least affectedstudents was for the children without either parent. The incomevariable indicated that the lower the rate of earnings by thefamilies the higher the number of children with learning disorders.The trend, however, changes when the household income goes beyond$100,000 (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013).
Technology and Learning Process
The discussion on the identification of learning disabilities hasgrown over the years due to the integration of technology in thelearning process. Various forms of literature have been providedregarding the efficiency of technology in developing the appropriatestudent success. The process of integrating technology into thelearning system is deemed to have started in the 1980s. However,questions continue to arise whether learning with technology leads tothe achievement of the desirable objectives among the learners. It isimportant to acknowledge that technology has a prominent role in thelearning process (Wong, 2004).
Technology can be used as a tool to support knowledge constructionthat can be utilized in representing the ideas of the learners aswell as their understandings and beliefs. In addition to this, thetools provided by technology are efficient in the production oforganized knowledge bases by the learners (Neuwirth & NationalInstitute of Mental Health (U.S.), 1993).
In addition to this, technology plays an important role as aninformation vehicle that can be used in the exploration of knowledgeto support learning. In this case, it is used for accessing theneeded information, and for comparison perspectives (Wong, 2004).Moreover, technology supports meaningful learning by comparing thebeliefs and worldviews.
Another role played by technology in learning is in the context ofpromoting learning through the representations and simulation ofreal-world problems and situations for the students to learn through.Additionally, technology helps to learn by representing thearguments, beliefs, and perspectives of the learners. Finally, it canbe utilized to define a safe and conducive environment for learning(Wong, 2004).
Technology can be regarded as a social medium that supports learningby encouraging collaboration between individuals as well asdiscussing the beliefs and building consensus among the members of agiven learning environment. Additionally, technology can be able tosupport discourse within acknowledge-building environments.
Technology is also regarded as an intellectual partner since itsupports learning by the learners to articulate and present what theyhave understood within the classroom. Moreover, it provides anactivity for reflection whereby the learners can indicate what theyhave learned and how they became aware of it. Technology can also beregarded as having contributed to the students’ internalnegotiation skills.
There are various ways through which technology can foster thinkingamong individuals. As such, it can be utilized in sustaining businesssuccess through five concepts. These include causal analogical,expressive, experiential, and problem solving (Wong, Graham, Hoskyn &Berman, 2008).
Causal thinking is one the factors taken into consideration whenanalyzing the impact of education on the development of individuals.For one to be able to learn effectively, the learners will applycausal relationships. However, they must be in a position to quantifythe attributes of causal relationships as well as the mechanisms thatdefine the relationships. Analogical on the other hand integratespsychological analysis in the learning process. As such, the use oftechnology enables the students to engage in comparison analysisbetween various concepts in learning.
On the other hand, technology is used in enabling to portray avariety of expressions in their academic work. By using differenttools, the learners are able to express what they are aware of in avariety of ways. Some of the tools that the learners can utilize inexpressing themselves include spreadsheets and databases.Experiential refers to the analysis of meaningful memories. Thereforethe students can utilize technologies to convey stories that aremeaningful and memorable (Jonassen, Howland, Marra & Crismond,2001). Finally, technology is used to facilitate problem solvingtechniques. The availability of technology enables the learners to beable to make myriad decisions when participating in their class work.
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
Top of Form
Top of Form
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Bottom of Form
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
Barresi, J. C. (2013). Visual arts. SDE.OK.GOV. Retrieved on21 July 2016 fromhttp://sde.ok.gov/sde/sites/ok.gov.sde/files/documents/files/Visual_Arts_Standards_Grades_Oct_2013.pdf
Bradley, K., Bonbright, J. & Dooling, S. (2013). Evidence: Areport on the impact of dance in the K-12 setting. Art Works.Retrieved on 23 July 2016 fromhttps://www.arts.gov/sites/default/files/Research-Art-Works-NDEO.pdf
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Summary HealthStatistics for U.S. Children: National Health Interview Survey,2012. Vital and Health Statistics, 10 (258).Topof Form
Chapter 19. (2015). Section 5. Ethical issues in communityinterventions. CTB.KU. Retrieved on 23 July 2016 fromhttp://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/analyze/choose-and-adapt-community-interventions/ethical-issues/main
Coil, C. (2011). Differentiated activities & assessmentsusing the common core standards. Marion, IL: Pieces ofLearning.
Curriculum Development and Supplemental (CDS). (2004). Visual andperforming arts framework for California public schools kindergartenthrough grade twelve. cde.ca.gov. Retrieved on 21 July 2016from http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/documents/vpaframewrk.pdf
Discenza, R., Howard, C., & Schenk, K. (2003). The designand management of effective distance learningprograms. Hershey, PA: IRM Press.
Fenton, C., & Watkins, B. W. (2010). Fluency in distancelearning. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Pub.
Futaki, K. (2010). Danube floodRisk project: Stakeholder selection strategy.
Guetzkow, J. (2002). How the arts impact communities: An introductionto the literature on arts impact studies. Princeton. Retrievedon 23 July 2016 fromhttps://www.princeton.edu/~artspol/workpap/WP20%20-%20Guetzkow.pdf
International Institute forEnvironment and Development (IIED). (2005). Stakeholder poweranalysis. Powertools.org. Retrieved on 21 July 2016 fromhttp://www.policy-powertools.org/Tools/Understanding/docs/stakeholder_power_tool_english.pdf
Jaycox, L. H., Shelley, G. A., Blake, S. M., Peterson, D. J. &Kub, J. E. (2006). Challenges in the evaluation and implementation ofschool-based prevention and intervention programs on sensitivetopics. American Journal of Evaluation, (27)3, 320-336.
Jonassen, D., Howland, J., Marra, R.M. & Crismond, D. (2001). HowDoes Technology Facilitate Learning? Pearson Allyn Bacon PrenticeHall
Kendall, J. S. (2011). Understanding common core statestandards. Alexandria, Va: ASCD.
Meier, D., & Wood, G. H. (2004). Many children leftbehind: How the No Child Left Behind Act is damagingour children and our schools. Boston, Mass: Beacon Press.
Morrow, L. M., Shanahan, T., & Wixson, K. K. (2013). Teachingwith the common core standards for English languagearts, PreK-2. New York: The Guilford Press.
NEH. (2016). NEH & economic impact. NEH.Gov. Retrieved on23 July 2016 fromhttp://www.neh.gov/news/fact-sheet/neh-economic-impact
Neuwirth, S., & National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.).(1993). Learning disabilities. Place of publication notidentified: National Institute of Mental Health.
Pacific. (2010). University of the pacific impact analysis. Pacific.Retrieved on 23 July 2016 fromhttp://www.pacific.edu/Documents/marketing/community-impact-report.pdf
Peterson, P. E., & West, M. R. (2003). No child leftbehind?: The politics and practice of school accountability. Washington, D.C: Brookings Institution Press.
Razali, R. & Anwar, F. (2011). Selecting the right stakeholdersfor requirements elicitation: a systematic approach. Journal ofTheoretical and Applied Information Technology, (33)2, 250-258.
Ryan, S., Frazee, D., & Kendall, J. S. (2012). Commoncore standards for high school English language arts.
Siddiqui, M. H. (2004). Distance learning technologies ineducation. New Delhi: A P H Publishing.
Stiegelbauer, S. (2008). The Arts and afterschool programs: Aresearch synthesis. Sedl.org. Retrieved on 23 July 2016 fromhttps://www.sedl.org/afterschool/toolkits/arts/pdf/arts_lit_rev.pdf
Voeller, B. (2006). Accelerated distance learning: The newway to earn your college degree in the twenty-firstcentury. Hinsdale, IL: Dedicated Pub. Bottomof Form
Vogel, S. A. (1998). Learning disabilities,literacy, and adult education. Baltimore [u.a.: Brookes.
Wong, B. Y. L. (2004). Learning about learning disabilities.San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press.
Wong, B., Graham, L., Hoskyn, M., & Berman, J. (2008). TheABCs of Learning Disabilities. San Diego: Elsevier Science.
Bottom of Form
Bottom of Form
Bottom of Form