Discussion Question


Suggestionfor research presented in empirical research studies justifies theneed for my proposed study. Its justification heavily influences thenext course of action as it shapes the kind of research to beundertaken. Studies on economics help the field further. Research inphysics and technology is opening new gateways and bringing a richerunderstanding of the universe. Recent studies serve as buildingblocks adding on to that which was already researched on.

Thereis a relation between sample size and statistical tests, in fact, acorrelation in that the sample size will increase confidence that isprecision, reduce the margin of error, power and effect size. Themore the sample size is bigger, the higher confidence one will havein the results since the underlying population provides more datathus uncertainty reduces. A larger or increased sample size givesmore data to work with thus we can detect differences in preferenceor the targeted outcome (Hidayat, et al. 2015). If in a population of50 men and 50 female, 20 and 30 of whom own a car respectively. Itcan be estimated that 40 % of the men and 60% of the women own a car.The effect size, I, the difference between the proportions is -18%.

Themargin of error is the level of precision needed therefore a narrowermargin of error requires a larger sample size.

Theimportance of planning the sample size before the collection is thatit grants efficiency in data collection (Lai, et al. 2014). Planningwill give a calculation of the sample size needed and thus help comeup with a clear budget and a clear schedule on how long the studyshould run.


Hidayatw, Sulaiman A, viridi S, Zen FP (2015) TheViscous and External Force Effect on the thermal Denuration ofpeyrard-Bishop Modelphys Chem Biophys 5:186. Doi10.4172/2161-0398.100018

LaiPY, Teng J (2013) Five Policy Options in the Face of Euro Crisis.JGlob Econ 1:e101

VinajV, Sriteja V, Hemalal R, Damodar R, Mukesh K, et al. (2014) AReview on Economical Health and Its Outputs. JGlob Econ 2:R1-001.doi10.4172/economics. 1000R1-001

Discussion Question


DeborahStone’s view can be justified and held as valid as rules bringsocial order. A rule or law such as facing killing of a human beingserves all of the mankind. It ensures that anyone can enjoy theirlives without the fear of peril. This rule, in particular, is bothformal and informal, enshrined in the constitution but also held associal and traditional customs, and also it’s viewed as morallyupright.

Killingis allowed in certain situations like self-defence or in war. Thecontext and classification in agreement with the informal rules ofthe society are what will be used to judge whether a law is broken orbent.

Fora law to be enforced there has to be a certain level ofpredictability so that members of the society know and understand theconsequences of breaking a rule, therefore, abide by them or facecertain consequences such as jurisdiction.

Inrulemaking and enforcement, there also has to be a balance betweenprecision and authority otherwise, the rules will either be too harshor making breaking and bending the law easy. The rule has to bestatic enough to bring order but also flexible enough to recognizecircumstance, therefore, avoiding prejudice. Rules can serve both asobjects (produce political conflicts). Subsequently, there is apropensity regarding vagueness (Stone, 2011, P.296).


Inthe end, policy implementation comes to the people who implement it(Lipsky, 2013).There has always been a need for street levelbureaucrats as the real work of policy implementation lies in theirhands. The work undertaken by the police force cannot be takenlightly as their primary force used to maintain law and order in thesociety we live. In a way, the implementation of the law lies intheir hands because carrying that jurisdiction to apprehend lawoffenders in their respective areas where they are allowedjurisdiction.

Policediscretion which can term as relative, in a case such an evading aspeed ticket most people appeal for police discretion to get off withjust a warning yet again the same person will criticize and condemnthe same discretion if it doesn’t fall in their favour. Grantedthere are cases where the police abuse their discretion case in pointkilling of the black people which pushed for the Black Lives Mattermovement.

Inmy view, the police have too much discretion. Nothing shades lightmore than the recent controversial killing by police in rather shadycircumstances. Looking at the statistics, young black men were ninetimes more likely than others to be killed be officers In 2015 thisis according to a study done that recorded a final tally of 1134deaths at the hands of law enforcement officers( Swaine, et al.,2015).

It’sa now a clear fact that the police need to go back to the drawingboard and come up with policies and laws to curb this killing trend.Discretion should be one of the factors controlled but not done away with. Police caution should be balancedas it will reduce situations of wrong judgment but also reduce casesof petty arrests and such.


DeborahStoneedition (2011)3rdedition PolicyParadox:”TheArt of Political Decision Making”.(pg. 296)W.WNorton

MichaelLipsky (2013)towards a theory of street level Bureaucracy(IRP Discussion Paper no.48-69) (p.45).Madison, WI: Institute forResearch on Poverty.

JonSwaine, Oliver Laughland, Janiles Lartey and Ciara McCarthy (2015)Young black men killed by US police at highest rate in year of 1134deaths.The Guardian.