DEVELOPING WOMEN LEADERSHIP CHINA

Developing Women Leadership China 8

DEVELOPINGWOMEN LEADERSHIP CHINA

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DevelopingWomen Leadership China

Literaturereview

Thissection gives an instinctive analysis on the various literatures thatconcern the leadership stance in women as postulated by variousauthors across the world. The section discusses five main topics,which are expected to digest on the position of women leadership inChina and across the world. Notably, it dwells on the globalperception on the leadership in women. Various theories are discussedand they include the glass ceiling theory, gender and leadershiptheory and glass cliff theory. Thissection aims at providing an instinctive analysis on the variousliteratures that concern the leadership stance in women as postulatedby different authors across the world. While carrying out theanalysis, the paper will also explore and explain the currentsituation of women leadership in China, the barriers they face intheir leadership positions. This section concludes by a discussion onthe ways of developing leadership within global context.

GlobalWomen Leadership Analysis

Inthe global context, there are various macro decisions that are madeby the government and the world leaders. These decisions are deemedto have far-reaching effects to the humanity in a societal stance.Nonetheless, most of the individuals who make the decisions are menand rarely do women hold the influential decision making positions. Various multinational companies have also followed suit in notconsidering the placement of women in the leadership positions, whichindeed impact negatively on these women. One of the reasons why therehave been fewer women in the leadership positions is their placementin the society as dictated by the culture (Ashby,Ryan, and Haslam, 2006, p.176).Additionally, there is the claim that the personality of women doesnot allow them to be in these positions. Furthermore, even when theyare accorded the chance to serve, it is thought that they would notmake informed decisions that would help the humanity. Women arelikely to be bias in their decisions, as it will be determined byemotions and not impartiality. The following theories expound on thereasons that make women not to be in these powerful positions (Zhu,2013, p.32).

TheGlass Ceiling Theory

Accordingto Bruckmüller, and Branscombe, (2010, p.42), glass ceiling is anyform of barrier that would demean the minority group of the societyfrom getting to the top positions in leadership. This metaphor wascoined from the perception of the barrier of the feminist group fromadvancing their career. In any top management of an organization,there are strategic decisions that need to be made. The decisionsmade often affect the operations of a firm or organization in bothshort and long term. Critical and impartial analysis, therefore,needs to be done. The main reason for this is to ensure that themanagement gets the best course of actions before the implementationprocess begins. Several barriers exist that have hindered women frommaking influential decisions and hence they are left out of thesepositions. Chun, Sosik, and Yun (2012, p.27) on the other handperceives the advent of glass ceiling as those unseen circumstancesthat have been put in place to hinder the feminine gender fromelevating to the upper realms of corporate ranks. This notion happenswithout any regard to the academic qualifications and experiencesabout the women in context. It means that these women would behindered from clinching their leadership position even if they haveall the qualifications needs (Zhang,and Lee, 2015, p. 16).

Forthe condition of disparity to exist, there are certain conditionsthat need to be present. One of them is that the racial or genderdisparity should exist independently where it should not be explainedby the characteristics of job relevance of the worker. In addition,the racial or the gender disparity is deemed to advance as the careerimproves. This disparity again should be such that it is expected tohave a greater advantage at higher levels than at lower levels ofoutcome. A cross sectional study was recently done by Downs,Reif, Hokororo, and Fitzgerald, (2014). With the use of statisticsof the transitions of the CEOs of the Fortune 500 firms for the last14 years, they analyzed the probabilities of promotion and the tenureof leadership of women and other minorities. The persons who faceglass ceiling were categorized to be the women and the men of color.From the study, it emerged that if the performance of any companydecline during the reign of these minority groups, the white men CEOswould replace them. This move to them is known as the savior effect,which indeed has made the feminine gender to be derailed and losehope in the quest to advance their career (Zeng, 2016, p. 76).

Focusingon this postulation, it emerges that there is no trust that has beenbestowed upon the women even if they try to be at their best (Acar,2015, p.44). The role of women in the society is one of thecontributing factors that have led to their demeaning while servingin leadership positions. In the first instance, their physical makeand the notion of the energy they can utilize makes them lessattractive to the management role. This is a perception that has beeninculcated in many individuals which if not demystified will continueto haunt the advancement of women in the society. It is also believedthat the position women hold is same as that held by children. Thisthen implies that a woman is to be seen and not to be heard. In thisprospect, they are viewed as irrational beings whose role is to takeorders from the men and do as requested (Katuna, 2014, p.189). Thetheory has been used in many forums to help in finding solution tothe problems women currently face.

TheGlass Cliff Theory

Thistheory postulates that even as the women have broken the glassceiling and become the top-notch managers, they are still faced withvarious difficulties (cliff) even as they carry out their duties.There are obstacles that these women face in their leadershipposition that would make them fail or not feel the urge to managethese institutions. Some of the barriers that hinder women frommaintaining leadership positions include prejudice, stereotyping, andfervent discrimination that is witnessed among those who arestigmatized. In its immediate context, the women are deemed to bestigmatized in their leadership perspective. Women are treated inthis manner, as it is evident that they exemplify the traits that areconsidered to be of low power and status. This makes others in thesociety to devalue them for their traits (Shui, and Jaschok, 2014,175). It is due to this advent that women would receive more negativereactions and sentiment in their leadership positions than men. Morenegative influences that they get from the fraternity that they leadforms the (cliff). The cliff is the barrier that disallows them to bework exceptionally well. Therefore, it is only expected that it wouldbe difficult for them to gain influential respect and leadership inthese organizations. Lately there is a rise in the number of womenwho are within leadership positions (Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.231). The interest groups and lobby groups have made it possible for thesewomen to be heard and given the opportunity to attain these serve indifferent groups.

Genderand Leadership

Therehas been high level of discrimination in the attainment of leadershippositions based on the gender. For example a recent study carried outby the Gallup polls in the United States indicated that 14% of the USpopulation would find it quite undesirable to vote for a woman tobecome the next president. Additionally, it would be proper tomention that 10% of this population connotes that they would not votefor the women even if they are qualified for these positions (Wilson,2006, p.37). Furthermore, for the remaining 89% who would vote forthe women, 15% are still not certain that they would vote for thewoman to be in the leadership position. The bias seen in the votingline portends the notion of high level of negative perceptions thatpopulace have of the leadership of women. The same type of bias alsotranscends the workplace where the women are instinctivelydiscriminated. Here most of the employees prefer their bosses to bemale (39%) while those who prefer women are few at 18% (Welbourn, andLiddell, 2006, p.87). This discriminatory stance has given muchattention to the notion of biasness in decision making in theleadership positions where the female bosses’ instructions are nottaken seriously. The inadequacy to influence the decisions of othersamong the female are one of the ‘cliffs’ that women face in theirleadership positions (Wang, Chiang, Tsai, Lin, and Cheng, 2013,p.39).

Acloser look at the world presidents, it is important to note thatthere are few female presidents globally. During the times of USelections of 2007 for example, there was high level discriminationtowards women like Hillary Clinton. There were various mimics thatportrayed prejudice in the media during the US elections in the year2007. For example there were various sexisms that were depicted inthe media which were instinctively directed to Hillary Clinton(Wallis, 2015, p.27). It should be noted as well that these politicalin gestures were not considered newsworthy. The media blatantlyignored the postulation of Hillary Clinton which made her not to winthe 2007 elections. This phenomenon has been happening in variouspart of the world with keen concern of demeaning the female gender.Certainly, like Katie Couric connoted:

‘‘Someof the immense messages of that operation is the sustained andconventional responsibility of chauvinism in American existence,predominantly the press. If President of the United States Obama wasforced to meet head-on the bigoted correspondent to an ‘flatten MyShirt’ placard at crusade public meetings or a Hillary blackmailerput up for sale at airstrips the indignation will not be aannotation, it will be frontage folio newspaper’’

Thesesex prejudices in control originate from sexual categoryresponsibility and sexual category typecast anticipations. Certainly,populaces who contain supplementary conventional perceptions of theroles and rights of female gender in the social order displayssuperior bias towards feminine managers cognitive or Stereotypes,unscrupulous connotations such that they consign distinctiveness togroupings and constituents of clusters irrespective of realdiscrepancy in populace’s individuality, can also influencediscernments of women (Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.21). Althoughtypecasts often restrain a ‘kernel of integrity’, certainly thereexist gender disparities between women as well as men, and could betransformative for dispensation the great quantity of societal datawe come across every day, they could be mal-transformative andfavoritism the manner we digest news. A theatrical instance of theinfluence of femininity labels on awareness can be perceived in themedley of singers to work of art ensembles in the 1970s and 1980s(Bailyn,and Fletcher, 2007, p.241).The male-dominated groups witnessed an outstanding augment in femalesamongst their levels subsequent to building one diminutive yetinfluential transformation: candidates were requested to interviewbehind a display therefore invalidating any outcomes of sexualcategory typecasts in the choice progression. The labels thatmanipulate women in control are the invasive and pliant sex typecastsupholding that female gender pay attention and male gender takecontrol (Walker, Hu, and Qian, 2012, p.38). Women are type casted tohave mutual distinctiveness that emphasizes a distress for others,while male are perceived to have hereditary distinctiveness that giveemphasis to assurance, autonomy, and supremacy. These typecasts aretriggered effortlessly and repeatedly and are frequently veryrestrained creating them to be predominantly destructive.

Apartfrom the femininity-based anticipations, there is a common knowledgeof the composition of a boss. The figure of a boss in anyorganization is linked to the normal figure of a man. It is believedthat a boss should be authoritative and principled when makingcritical decisions, an aspect that is largely associated with men.This kind of prejudice among the women make them not be not progressin various leadership positions and treat some of the positions asmen-oriented (Valcour, 2014, p.54). Moreover, because efficientcontrol is reliant on devotees’ reactions to their influentials,not appropriate in the idyllic figure of a person in charge canconsequence in actual opposition in management efficiency as cohortsare less probable to agree to the control of principals who areprofessed and appraised in an unhelpful luminosity. The orthodoxrepresentation of a person in charge is somebody who has genetic,mannish personality, and in proportion to responsibility congruitysupposition, bigotry aligned with women develops from the absurditybetween the person in charge responsibility and femininity role. Thisinappropriateness was initially established by Schein (2013), whoexemplified that depictions of gentlemen were much supplementaryanalogous to the depictions of executives than were portrayals ofwomen, and has been long-established in several research ever since.Compliant with these sexism beliefs, male personalities are moreprobable to come out and get on the bureaucrat position anddesignation of a person in charge, while women are supplementary aptto get on unceremonious management positions and interrelateddesignations such as societal launch pad or coordinator(Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.231).

GenderDifferences Advantages and Disadvantages

Bothhousehold responsibilities and current workplace civilizationsdifferently influence men and women in the leadership domain.Resulting from the conventional labor specialization in which familychores are most probably to be left to the female gender, we wouldnot completely tackle subjects of sex and management in the communalarena with no probing how tasks in the clandestine arena influencethis affiliation (Ryan, and Haslam, 2005, p.99). Even though therehas been decline of females being tasked with house chores, they arestill in charge of issues that concern children. For instance, amongwedded parents working around the clock, more females (71%) spendbigger time taking care of kids than males (56%) while they expendextra hours caring for these kids (Ryan, and Haslam, 2005, p.119).Additionally, these feminine genders are likely to carry outhousehold chores, such as lawn care and cooking, and they use up moretime undertaking the duty (88% 3.1 h daytime) than the malecounterparts (54% 2.4 h daytime) (Turock, 2001, p.177).

Havingwomen and men at the workplace is beneficial in many ways. Firsthaving different genders, men and women in a workplace, there arehigh chances that top talent will be attracted. A workplace that isattractive to men and women will eventually provide the employerswith an opportunity to get the best out of the working pool. Giventhat women are increasingly getting more educated than men, aworkplace that is not attractive to women stands chance of losing thebest talent to its competitors.

Havingthe diversity of gender also helps in reduction of expenses. Usually,replacement of an employee costs approximately 75% or more of theirannual wage. Given that more women and men are likely to remainwithin an organization they perceive as fair, the turnover ofemployee for an organization that takes up both gender can be reducedthus decreasing the high expenses that are involved in therecruitment process. Also, the advantage of the gender differences isthat there is better performance registered in most of the areas. Alarge amount of research also suggests that organizations thatembrace gender differences have better performance. Even though thereare several reasons to expound on the association, it is undoubtedlythat having the different genders in workplace bring along with itvaried perspective. Also, there are chances that there is detailedanalysis of issues that organizations face and thus there is improveddecision-making. Decisions are made from well-articulated points andwell-informed positions.

Likewise,women go through greater difficulty instituting informal counseloraffiliations which can be fundamental to career development. Womenalso unreasonably occupy professions in areas that get lessvisibility and contain fewer endorsement opportunities such asbookkeeping, education, and HRM. Besides being less probable to be inspots that lead to sponsorship, when women are endorsed to managementpositions they are more probably than men to be allotted to glasscliffs insecure situations linked with greater risk and condemnation.

CurrentWomen Leadership in China

Currently,the Chinese population is close to 1.4 billion. This population isthe largest in the world. The women account for 48% of thispopulation. Proportionally, women are the minority. Their lesspopulation makes them to be the devalued and demeaned by their malecounterparts. The current statistics shows that less than 20% of thetop leadership positions are held by the women in this country (King,2009, p.98). Some of the pertinent issues that hinder the women inthis country to be on the leadership edge are culturally related. Tothe Chinese fraternity there are specific roles that the womenfraternity is entitled. The family household chore is one of them.Currently, there is high gender imbalance in China as there are moremen than women. This gender imbalance has been caused by the formerone child policy that was instituted by the government in the past.The one child policy dictated that every couple was to bear only onechild. This reduced the rates of population tremendously which indeedcreated the imbalance (Bowles, 2012, p.198).

Accordingthe China statistics, women still lag behind in matters of politicalrepresentation. To this effect, the data shows that among the womenwho are in the workforce, only about 2.3% hold active leadershippositions. The notion conforms to the world data of the placement ofwomen in the leadership position. In the recent past, there it isfact that the prominent and most influential female in China, LiuYandong is due to contend for presidency. The woman is seen to befrom the political class (Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.21). Record showsthat she is related to the former president and also the daughter ofthe former agricultural minister in the China republic. Researchshows that even if she is elected to this position, this electionwill not change the lives of the China women. It is believed thatthose who are surrounding her in terms of the ranks, such as theministers and the local leaders are likely to take control of thegovernment in a clandestine manner. Breaking the ceiling and dealingwith the cliff is one of the daunting tasks that these women have toface. The provisions made in this connotation include being quiteinfluential to the humanity and making sure that you transform theirperception on the women. The underestimation of the women in thissociety has brought much strain in the context of variouspropositions (Bowles, 2012, p.198).

Womenindeed are not respected in China as their leadership capabilitiesare questioned by their male counterparts. This notion has beenstrengthened by the believe that they have less support from theirfellow women as well. The gender imbalance experienced in China hasalso given little chances for the women to be heard as leaders(Jonsen,Maznevski and Schneider, 2010).Just like in the global stance, women who are in leadership positionstend to face many negative reactions from their subordinates. Thenegative criticism usually make them to get lose focus on their livesand abandon being formidable in the implementation of theirorganizational agenda. The men on the other hand face less criticismfor they are known to have the leadership qualities that would helpin the progress of the organizations. On the account of physicalcharacteristics, the women in China, just like in the world over, areconsidered to be the weaker sex. The physical characteristics do notallow them to assume these tough positions of leadership. The mindsetof this population is that the female fraternity has not power tocontrol the very powerful positions while there are men who can dosuch works perfectly (Regan and Brooks, 2005). This perception hasmade them not to climb the ladder of management.

InChina’s population, the aging population is rising. Currently, thechild fertility rates are approximately 1.7 births per woman. Thisrate is quite low and is considered to be going below the replacementlevels. It would only mean that this notion would put China at a riskof being a society which ageing. In the year 2015, approximately 10%of the population of China was having an age of 65 years and above.This age is deemed to be quite detrimental to the economy of China.This population is expected to rise to over 20% in 35 years to come(King, 2009, p.98). The increase is attributed to the two childbearing policy that limits these people from getting children. Thereis therefore the need to take care of the old. During the inceptionof the two children and the one child policy, it is stipulated thatthe couples are suppose to take care of their four parents while attheir energetic age (Kulich, 2015, p.287). This notion is true for afact that the married couples are charged with the responsibility oftaking care of their parents from both divide. However, it isimportant to note that the persons that take most time to care forthe parents are the women. They take most of their time doing thedaily chores for these parents. The men on the other hand find itquite important to concentrate on their jobs. Most commitments ofwomen therefore, end up with their household duties.

Inany working organization, commitment is very important and this wouldearn one promotion and good support from the company. The fact thatmost of the women in China concentrate more on the household dutiesmakes them not to get the support needed for the leadership position(Sweetman, 2011). Therefore, less of these women are represented inthe leadership positions. Furthermore, most of the companies havebeen on the verge of making sure that they get the best out theiremployees. Profitability is very important to them. In order toremain in the competition, these organizations have to use the notionof natural selection to be on the competitive end (Cooke, 2013).Research also says that the men usually respected in the leadershipposition than their fellow women. Men in China therefore are morelikely to hold these positions than the women (Assouline-Dayan, 2013,p.31). The first reason is because according to the principle ofnatural selection, the men are deemed to be better leaders thanwomen. In this prospect, they are usually preferred than women. Theprobability of electing women in an active leadership position istherefore deemed to be quite low.

Fromthe connotations of Feng Menglong, the author tries to give muchbrevity and honor to the unmarried gentry women who as time becomesprostitutes in the society without any husband to take care of thembut are still managing to fend for themselves. Much weight is put onthe fact that Feng Menglong is keen to dissociate himself fromimmorality but is also very quick to mention what the unprecedentedcircumstances that these same women undergo. The subgroup of womenthat has been despised in this prompts are the courtesans. This setof subgroup has been portrayed as have mixed reactions and feeling asregards being autonomous. Women, conversely, have mixed connotationswhen they apply autonomy. In one poem of the courtesans, a courtesanremains dedicated to her lover, purchases her freedom, accumulateswealth to impress his parents, and still goes ahead to commitssuicide by the end for the reason that her husband decides to put herup for sale (Haslam, and Ryan, 2008, p.188). In this narration thewomen are perceived to be quite naïve and very poor in managingthemselves alone. It is due to this that the most stories portendsthere were less women in the leadership position and even then theycould not contain the art and the knowledge of decision-making. Asit stands, the various parties to this advent gives the connotationthat women have been despised because of their gender. The perceptionthat they are still weak is still on and this has made them to bedespised in the community. Autonomy is very important forleadership. Unless one exhibit high sense of autonomy, thetranscending effect is that in times of decision-making, this wouldbe a daunting task to execute (Bowles, 2012, p.198).

Thisseeming irregularity in what occurs when women implement theirdesires is an concern not just since there is a clear twice standardstuck between what occurs when female gender act on their desiresagainst when male gender do (especially since that double customaryis almost predictable). The discrepancy is an issue since when womenexercise self-government it is a much more fundamental act becausethey have fewer chances for it in society. Knowing when these womencan perform it and have an optimistic result is important since itreveals the limits that women have in the social order and in whichregions of it they can have authority (King, 2009, p.98).

DevelopingWomen Leadership

First,women need to have acquisition of basic skills apart from just theregular education (Cooke, 2013). Therefore, the young women need tobe given the opportunity to build the skills that will ensure theyhave successful careers. By developing these skills, some of theareas under focus include public speaking, effective networking,writing, and capability to negotiate (Downs et al., 2014). Some ofthem may have these skills but lack the opportunity to practice them.It is worth providing them with an opportunity to practice theskills.

Womenneed to be given international exposure as this kind of exposureremains invaluable in their career development (Pini, 2013). This isthe case as the world is increasing becoming a village andinterdependent and actions that occur at one point directly affectsothers. Through international thinking, the way in which theindividuals think is challenged. Getting skills from living andworking in a new environment is just incomparable. The women getexposed to how different cultures perceive issues and tackle them.Individuals are forced to think outside the box and apply solutionsbeyond their comfort zones (Wilson, 2006).

Additionally,women need role models as it is a way through which women can developleadership and aspire to be great themselves (Jonsen, Maznevski andSchneider, 2010).

Womenneed to be nurtured as mentored at an early stage to help themrealize that they can make it. This message should be passed even toboys early enough so that it becomes a norm (Regan and Brooks, 2005).

Implications

Thissection recommends some the ways in which the women leadership inChina could be improved. The improvement is based on various facets.These facets may entail empowering them with regard to education,allowing them to make autonomous decisions in their leadership anddemystifying the presumed gender roles in the society among others.In the current corporate world, women get quite aggressive to be atthe top positions in many organizations. However, along the way, theytend to be discouraged and get out of these leadership positions anddisappear. They are then replaced by the men who are considered to bequite tolerant to the upheavals in the leadership positions. Thisconnotation is strengthened by that fact that most of men are likedby their subordinates and are perceived as those who can be trustedwith such delicate position. The following discussions brings onboard the solutions that could be applied to make sure that thesewomen are indeed at a position to clinch these positions and remainon top.

Opportunitiesfor Developing Women’s Leadership in China (Organizational Context)

1.Formal Mentoring Programs

Institutionscan work to get superior leaders to offer mentorship and support totalented women in a company. The business needs to hold up theconception of women’s collections that can give opportunities forfemale gender to be with the persons who encounter the samechallenges and to exchange resolutions for dealing with thesedemands. This proposition is strengthened by the fact that in Chinamost of the women do not have a say in daily mega decisions (Kulich,2015, p.287). Women tend to be left out and therefore not concernedabout growing themselves into the professional leadership positions.With the inception of the mentorship program, they would be at aposition to understand their real problems with keen concern onmaking sure that they overcome such challenges. Those who are in thesuperior positions have also experienced the managerial challenges.They can share on the how they managed to solve such situation.Having this kind of mentoring women will ultimately come out as boldand brave. Their influence is critical in making sure that they earnrespect as they give orders (Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.231).

Reductionof Women Employee Turnover

Everytime we get together with a large group of executives within anysociety, we can reliably reach a conclusion that women will be themarginalized. Secondly, you can envisage that the women will normallybe seated collectively, generally in clusters of three or four. Eachof them tends to look for others with whom we believe they have muchin familiar. That is why groupings of women can be so important inproviding education and support. Chinese organizations shouldencourage women to meet frequently and mentor each other to expandtheir influence (King, 2009, p.98). A group of elite women who are inthe active leadership positions should come on board and make surethat they meet up with the upcoming women leaders. The main aim ofthis meeting would be to offer support on pertinent issues regardingleadership and management. The transcending effect of this notion isthat the women would be empowered. Additionally, most women know orhave idea of the things that their counterparts go through. The womenleaders who are mentors can advise the upcoming women leaders in anempathic way. They understand the stress these persons are goingthrough in terms of household chores. They also understand theemotional stress they are put through. The good thing is that theyalready overcame such traumas. Mentoring the young women leaderswould be very passionate. In fact they would be willing to give backto the society through the mentorship programs (Bowles, 2012, p.198).

2.Development Opportunities

Firmscould do more to ensure that there are greater improvementopportunities and back-up all senior managers to expand the conduitof women who are in managerial and administrative positions. Theseare the titles from which prospect VPs and superior executives willbe selected. Except there is a sufficient supply at these foremostand second echelons of administration, the problem is significantlymagnified. Once more, because of the reasonably small figure ofsenior females in firms, there are few mentors to emulate. The morecompanies can augment the exposure and authority of their seniorfeminine, the greater their achievement will be in transforming womento superior positions. It is therefore quite important the everyorganization should ensure that they inculcate the gender parity rule(Kulich, 2015, p.287). This move will ensure that there are equalemployment opportunities for both the men and women. This notion hasthe effect of ensuring the women leaders can be nurtured. Thenurturing is done because most of the employees are aware of thepromotion that awaits them when they perform well. The proportion ofthe male and the female is expected therefore to be equal. Theseequal employment opportunities will make the proportion of womenleaders to grow exponentially (King, 2009, p.98).

3.Active in-house Recruiting

InChina, it is advocated that if firms would add more females to theirheadship teams, the efficiency of the teams would amplify. Researchworks have shown that businesses with women on their panels ofdirectors have enhanced economic performance than those withoutwomen. Furthermore, as organizations aim to fill their managementconduit, it is prudent for them to look within instead of employingexecutives from competing companies. Often, from within there is theuntapped reserve (Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.231). The research alsoput the women on the rank of being impartial than men in terms ofdecision making. This rare quality should be widely exploited by theowners of these organizations. The stereotype should be removed inorder to allow these employees to do their work exceptionally well.The proposition that most of the women need support is very critical(Bailyn, and Fletcher, 2007, p.198).

HumanResource Department Restructuring

Theperformance of the human resource departments in variousorganizations will determine employment management, growth, andturnover. There is a way in which the organizations should managetheir human resource (Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.287). One of them isthrough employment of qualified staffs that have the vast knowledgeof the gender placement in the society. This opinion resonates withthe fact that the department will determine how these marginal groupsgrow and how the employee turnover is controlled. For example, the HRdepartment should have equal opportunity for both the women and men.Therefore in terms of decision making on the employment in relationto gender, the women recruitment would be well represented (Ely, andRhode, 2010, p.324).

Thewomen HR staffs are expected to defend their fellow women recruitsfor these positions if there is to be high level of parity in theorganization. This representation and defending of the women in theHR department will ensure that they grow in both skills and the rolesthey play. In addition to the representation, this department shouldcontain those who are empathetic to the women and are able to offertraining for the same. The support through training and workshop thatis experienced in the whole context of management has a profoundeffect of motivating the women employees to take up their rolesseriously. The taking up of the roles is pegged on the need to builda string team which would eventually represent the women in theseleadership positions (Kim, and Rowley, 2009, p.231).

Exploitationof Women Capabilities

Inthe current research, it came out clearly that women are morestrategic thinkers than their male counterparts. The organizations inChina should embrace this connotation and encourage more women tojoin these leadership positions. Any firm with a clear strategy hasthe ability to excel. The women with the gift of being a goodstrategic planner should indeed be on the verge of ensuring that theydeliver a good work for the organization. The continued efforts bythese HR departments and the organization as a whole have the effectof making sure that percentage of those women who clinch thesepositions escalates (Law, 2013, p.45). Moreover, because effectivecontrol is dependent on devotees’ reactions to their leaders,inappropriate leadership can result in real opposition in leadershipefficiency as followers are less likely to accept the control ofleaders who are professed and evaluated (Graves, Sarkis, and Zhu,2013, p.76).

Changingthe Presumed Image of Leadership

Theorthodox image of a leader is somebody who has genetic, mannishtraits, and in proportion to role congruity theory. Bigotry againstwomen develops from the absurdity between the leader responsibilityand the female femininity role. This inappropriateness was originallyestablished by Schein (2013), who exemplified that depictions of menwere much supplementary similar to the depictions of executives thanwere portrayals of women, and has been long-established in severalstudies since. Compliant with these gendered beliefs, men are moreprobable to come out and take on the bureaucrat role and title of aperson in charge, while women are more apt to take on unceremoniousleadership positions and interrelated titles such as social launchpad or coordinator (Özdemir, 2015, p.334). This conception isgradually changing and most of the organizations are making steps todemystify this fact. The main aim of any organization is to ensurethat they remain competitive in the market and have the best strategyto move forward. There should be therefore impartiality in thechoosing of the leaders. The choosing should therefore be based onmerit of these employees. The conception of women not getting theseopportunities even when they have the paper should not be the case(Jacka, 2014, p.34). The bigotry perceptions and prejudice that wasseen in the ancient management system should be scrapped out in orderto ensure equality and profound management of these companies. Tothis end, it is the mandate of every organization in China to step uptheir control and ensure that also the women are given equalopportunities in terms of employment and leadership positions. Nowthat China is facing high levels of ageing society and genderimbalance, the role of women in building the economy is quiteinevitable (Graves, Sarkis, and Zhu, 2013, p.144).

TheGovernment Intervention

Inthe bid to empower women in China, there are various interventionsthat the government can engage. One of them is the inception ofpolicies that promote women to be in the leadership positions. As thegovernment seeks to empower women, the first policy that it shouldput in place is ensuring that there is equal employment opportunityto both the women and men (Ryan, Haslam, and Kulich, 2010, p.176).This policy should be instituted such that it affects both the publicand the private sector. Most countries like the USA have successfullyintroduced this policy and it is working perfectly well. In fact, thecurrent workforce status of US is that half o the working populationis women. In the private sector, the big companies like Delloite haveripped a lot through giving equal opportunities to the women as men.There are barriers that have hindered the women from making suchdecisions and hence they are left out of these positions (Chun,Sosik, Yun, 2012, p.27).

Onthe other hand the advent of glass ceiling is perceived as thoseunseen circumstances that have been put in place to hinder thefeminine gender from elevating to the upper realms of corporateranks. This notion happens without any regard to the academicqualifications and experiences of the women in context. It means thatthese women would be hindered from clinching their leadershipposition even if they have all the qualifications needs(Stachowitsch, 2013, p.111). For this condition to exist, there arecertain limited requirements. One of them is that the racial orgender disparity should exist independently. This disparity shouldnot be explained by the characteristics of job relevance of theworker. The government should therefore ensure they shun genderdiscrimination to all its citizens with keen concern on theprovisions of opportunities to every individual. Some of the programsthat help women nurture their talents are through creation of commoncommunication forum for women where they can interact and mentor eachother (Sheaffer, Bogler, &amp Sarfaty, 2011, p.188).

Mentorshipfrom Successful Men Leaders

Inthe China community, majority of positions are taken by men. Thegovernment and the private sector organizations should take it uponthemselves to instruct the male leaders to mentor ladies. The equalparity can only be achieved when all the parties concerned areprovided with equal opportunities. The private sector should organizeforums that would make men leaders to come together to offer theirexperience in leadership to the women leaders. With this move, thewomen will feel part of the society (Sweetman, 2011, p.59).Additionally, they will gain profound knowledge and skills on thebest way to manage the whole context of organizational leadership. Acase study done by Delloite Company in USA shows that the forumstarted by the US government to empower women leader was madesuccessful using men leaders who offered not only to train the ladiesbut also mentor them. The result was that these women who weretrained became successful in their areas of management more thanother men leaders (Steinberg, True, &amp Russo, 2008). This is themove that should be incepted in China to create high level of parityin provision of leadership opportunities to the esteemed women whoaspire to be leaders. Lastly, the men are like the pillar of thewomen. Their instructions on leadership are more respected by thewomen. If this virtue could be inculcated in women, it would indeedcreate a platform of respectful leadership across the board. Thesuccessful men who are in leadership should therefore take thischallenge in China to empower the women of their country (Regan, andBrooks, 2005, p.79).

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