Thereare three phases of CRM flight training have been reviewed. Theyinclude awareness, practice, and feedback and reinforcement(The University of New Castle Australia, 2015).Some of the relevant issues that must be considered in CRM trainingare also put forth. For example, there should be a proper delegationand separation of flying responsibilities. Also, positive monitoringshould be considered. Thirdly, secondary task should be avoided toensure that the pilot concentrates on a particular activity. Fourthstep involve ensuring that clearance of any form doubt among the crewmembers. Interpretation of conflicting facts and enhancement ofaccuracy should be taken into account. In addition, measures shouldbe made to cross-check any conflict arising from multiple informationsources. Such cross-checking should be done through an unbiased andan independent source. Finally, the manner in which CRM trainingtopics should be selected is also put forth as well as topicsthemselves. Such topics are chosen to equip crew members with vitalskills for eliminating accidents and to improve their performance.Topics chosen include threat and errors management, informationmanagement, communication and leadership skills, situation awareness,problem-solving, and stress management were selected.
CrewResource Management (CRM) is a type of training that deals with theinteraction of human beings within the crew context(Civil Aviation Authority, 2002).It studies the manner in which people interact with the workenvironment and identifies behaviors of individuals within the crewenvironment (CivilAviation Authority, 2002).Human interaction within the crew environment is similar tointeractions in other organization with some exceptions, includingthat the crew environment is influenced by flight crew training(Orlady, 2010).
Theapplication of CRM training has expanded over recent years to improvehuman performance (Orlady, 2010). The primary objectives of CRMtraining are to improve non-technical skills and enhance socialinteraction among crew members (Orlady, 2010). Such improvement mayhelp to promote organization productivity and ensure that traineesare furnished with vital skills that improve their efficiency andaccuracy (The University of New Castle Australia, 2015). The use ofCRM training has grown significantly. For example, it is utilized inother crews such ascabin, maintenance, bridge and railway crew(Kale,2014).
Researchindicates that Crew Resource Management integrates all form of humanfactors by placing more emphasize on crew coordination (Kale,2014).Usually, Threat Error Management (TEM) is utilized to provideguidelines on how CRM training should be conducted (Kale,2014).TEM includes setting up strategies that will be utilized by bothindividuals and the organization to promote safety by ensuring humanerrors are eradicated (Cookson, 2017). The interaction between TEMand CRM results into a complementary relationship. For example, bothCRM and TEM involve creating and implementing strategies that preventhuman errors. On the other hand, CRM training focuses on efficientuse of TEM strategies such as non-technical skills to ensure humanerrors are eliminated. Some of the common strategies that enhanceinteraction and relationship among crew members are to promote goodcommunication and decision-making skills (Helmreich, Anca, &Kanki, 2010). Also, workload management and compliance to TEM processare vital strategies for enhancing performance of the crew members(Helmreich, Anca, & Kanki, 2010).
Flightcrew training considering CRM relevant issues
Whencarrying out crew training certain CRM issues should be taken intoconsideration. Some of the fundamental issues that should be takeninto account are the six multi-crew cockpit principles identified bythe researchers (The University of New Castle Australia, 2015).Thefirst principle involves delegating and separating flyingresponsibilities to ensure that high levels of safety are guaranteedduring flight operations. Secondly, positive monitoring delegationshould be exercised to ensure seamless flight operations. Thirdly,secondary task should be avoided when the pilot is flying theaircraft. Avoidance of secondary work helps to prevent activityoverload and ensure the pilot concentrate on the aircraft (Anca,2010). The fourth principle involves clearing any form doubt amongthe crew members. In a case in which crew members have some doubtpertaining to clarity of procedure, they should inform other crewmembers so that such doubts can be addressed to the safety of theflights. The fifth principle concerns with the interpretation ofconflicting facts and enhancement of accuracy. Whenever there is aconflict in facts, interpretation of such disagreements should beaddressed via external source. The sixth principle involvescross-checking any conflict arising from multiple informationsources. An independent source is used to solve the conflict (TheUniversity of New Castle Australia, 2015).
Toaddress these CRM issues, CRM flight crew training is commonlycarried out in three major phases namely awareness, practice andfeedback, and reinforcement. The first phase is awareness creation,in which trainees are provided with instructions and presentationsabout their roles and group functions to maintain proper coordinationamong them (Velazquez, & Bier, 2015). Awareness creation helpscrew members to conceptualize the causes of numerous flightaccidents. It also gives a direction on how such accidents can beprevented (Payne & Frow, 2013). The first stage of creatingawareness is via the introduction of CRM skills. Some of those skillsare communication and problem-solving skills. Besides, computerinstructions, video tapes, and comprehensive case studies onaccidents can be utilized to create awareness among the crew members.Some important outcomes of establishing awareness during flight crewtraining are enhanced competence, credibility and changed attitude ofthe trainees (Flin, & Maran, 2015).
Thepractice and feedback phase is the second most significant phase offlight crew training (Flin, & Maran, 2015). In this phase, thetrainers utilize role-playing techniques to provide trainees withskills for group practice. Also, questionnaires are employed toassess the attitude and personality of the flight crew so that thetrainers can discover areas that require intervention. Successfulidentification of personality and attitude among the trainees helpthem to know their strengths and weaknesses (Kale, 2014). It alsoallows the trainers to identify some of the roles that each crewmember can play without experiencing difficulties (Vidulich, &Tsang, 2016). Flight crew trainers also utilize Line-Oriented FlightTraining (LOFT) which is typical training exercise for improvingperformance of a group. It requires team members to have propercoordination to achieve the desired level of success. LOFT may becomplemented with video tapes for it to be a useful training tool(Flin, & Wilkinson, 2013). Complimenting LOFT with video tapes isimperative because it can create awareness that could not have beenachieved with the other techniques (Flin, & Wilkinson, 2013). Italso provides crew members with an opportunity to carry out peercritiques that consequently improve team performance (Schwartz, &Hobbs, 2014). Research shows that prior CRM training had failed toincorporate practice and feedback phase (Schwartz, & Hobbs,2014). Such failure made crew members have a false belief that theyhave learned, while in fact they had not. The failure of the trainingwas evident through a high number of flight accidents reported(Schwartz, & Hobbs, 2014).
Thethird phase of flight crew training involves reinforcement. Failureto incorporate reinforcement in the CRM training may make the wholeprocess unsuccessful (Schwartz, & Hobbs, 2014). There is a needto put into practice what the crew members have learned. CRM trainingmust be part of the organization culture. CRM training should not bejust a single day’s activity instead, it should be continuouslycarried out. It should be an inseparable component of theorganization so that members can feel they are fully equipped withCRM skills (Rahman, & Shaon, 2015). In most cases, thereinforcement phase tends to be overlooked during CRM training(Rahman, & Shaon, 2015). CRM training should receive the supportof the top management to prevent failure. CRM should be made part ofthe contemporary flight crew training. Refreshment programs should beestablished to ensure that flight crew members are aware of therecent changes in the aviation industry (Sharif, 2015). All crewmembers should be made part of the CRM training even the lower levelmanagement should be allowed to participate in the program to improvethe overall performance of the entire crew team (US Department ofTransportation, 2004).
Howto decide the topics to include
Thedecision of which topics to include for a new start-up facility thatrecruits both skilled and novice personnel will reflect the demandsof the contemporary market. Research indicates that during the firstgeneration of CRM training, more emphasis was given to equipping crewmembers with skills that focused on promoting their positive attitudeof learning towards the aviation industry (Callan, Gallois, Noller, &Kashima, 1991). The skills helped members know how they could managecrew resource and avoid errors. However, there has been increasedcomplexity in the contemporary crew context which has consequentlycreated a shift in the kind of CRM training implemented (Helmreich,2002). Modern CRM training focuses on how to manage errors andthreats (Helmreich, 2002).
TopicsI would choose and reason for choosing them
Giventhe complexity of the contemporary crew context, the training topicsI would choose for a new facility would focus on human factor such asstress management, processing information and group interaction. Theinclusion of human factor in crew training is necessary becausewhenever the needs of people are not taken into considerationaccidents may occur (Helmreich, 2002). For example, pilots should beequipped with skills on how they can manage stress and fatigue sothat they can be able to avoid accidents and errors when flying theaircraft (The University of New Castle Australia, 2015).
Someof the topics that I would choose to deal with stress managementinclude threat management and error management. While the topic thatI would select to deal with information processing include flightinformation managements and communication skills. Finally, the topicon leadership skills would be chose to deal with group interaction. Iwould select these topics because they can help to improve theperformance of crew personnel and eliminate errors that could occur.Threat management training would help to equip crew members withvital skills on how they can detect threats and how such risks may beavoided. In case human errors are bound to occur, threat managementskills may equip the participants with a comprehensive knowledge onhow they can manage the risks.
Error management skills may help to provide the crew members withvital knowledge about how they can prevent errors within the crewenvironment (Zhu & Ma, 2015). Prevention of mistakes may help toenhance the safety of the flights and people involved, whichconsequently contributes to avoiding accidents and losses that couldoccur (Vaughan, & Hogg, 2008).
Thetopic of flight information management may help the pilots and othercrew members to learn how information is processed and passed to allthe stakeholders. The topic is important because whenever there isinformation breakdown serious accidents and losses are bound to occur(Orlady, 2010). Such losses can be prevented by ensuring that crewmembers are equipped with relevant skills (Orlady, 2010).
Communicationand leadership skills are other important topic that should beincluded in flight crew training. Effective communication skillsallow crew members to know how to talk to each other and also how toaddress customers on board (Orlady, 2010). Also, leadership skillstraining should be included in flight crew training. Leadershipskills topic may help to provide crew members with differentleadership styles and know such method can be utilized in variouscrew environments (Orlady, 2010).
Also,CRM flight training should include situation awareness,problem-solving and stress management. Situation awareness may helpthe crew members to learn how to identify things that are happeninginside and outside the cockpit (Kasper, & Jentsch, 2016). It alsoequips crew trainees with skills on disaster management by providingthem with strategies that they can employ during emergencies (Kasper,& Jentsch, 2016). Awareness helps to evaluate each other for anyincapacitation that may jeopardize the aircraft that lives of thepeople inside the plane (Kasper, & Jentsch, 2016). It alsoenables pilots and other crew members to engage in ongoingquestioning, refinement and crosschecking any error that might occur(Kasper, & Jentsch, 2016). Such measures are to eliminate theerrors that may arise (Kasper, & Jentsch, 2016).
Thetopic of problem-solving prepares members of the crew to know howthey can address challenges that they might face during flightsoperation. Problem-solving takes into account the cycle of activityfrom the moment information has entered to the time when the finaldecisions are made (Civil Aviation Authority, 2002). During thecycle, some conflicting views among the crew members may occur andhence, problem-solving skills may prove imperative (Civil AviationAuthority, 2002). The topic on Stress management may be taught duringCRM training because crew members tend to faced stress, fatigue, andemotional problems (Civil Aviation Authority, 2002). Such problemsmay impair their rational judgment which consequently results inerrors. The reason for choosing stress management topic is because itprovides members of the crew with skills on how they can handlestress. It also encourages them to have an open communication toalleviate stress (Civil Aviation Authority, 2002).
CRMtraining focuses at equipping crew members with vital interactionskills within the multi-personnel crew environment. It can beobserved that flight crew training involve three phases. The firstphase involves creation of awareness among members of the crew.During this phase crew members are provided with the instructions andpresentation pertaining individual and group roles. The second phaseinvolves practice and feedback. Role-playing techniques is used toprovide trainees with group practice skills while questionnaires areutilized to evaluate personality and of the crew members.Reinforcement is the third phase of flight training. It focuses onmaking CRM training to become part of the organization culture. Itshould be carried out continuously and made part of the CRMcurriculum.
Whencarrying out flight crew training, CRM relevant issues should betaken into account. Among the issues that should be consideredinclude delegation and separation of flying responsibilities,positive monitoring and avoidance of secondary task. In addition, anyform doubt and interpretation of conflicting facts as well asenhancement of accuracy should be taken into account. Cross-checkingany dispute arising from two information source should also beconsidered.
Thetopics to be included in the CRM flight training depend on thecontemporary market needs as well challenges facing crew members.During the ancient times CRM training was focused at promoting theattitude of crew members towards liking the aviation industry.However, things have changed because current generation CRM trainingfocuses on how to manage errors and threats. The topics that would bechosen focus on a human factor other than just management of crewresources. Some CRM topics that would be selected chosen includeerrors and management, flight information managements, communicationand leadership skills. The reason for choosing the topics was toprovide crew members with knowledge and skills on how they can humanerrors within the crew context.
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