Criminology Theories

CriminologyTheories

Student’sNames

Victimization

Theory

Summarize the theory of victimization, describing its meaning and core concepts as it relates to the nature of crime.

Identify sub categories of the theory and describe each.

Apply the theory to one (1) real life example or scenario. Briefly, explain why the theory applies to the example you identified.

Victim precipitation theory

In this theory, the victim is the first in the homicide drama to resort to physical force against the subsequent slayer (Hernandez &amp Fisher, 2012). A similar definition is used in the case of aggravated assault except that insinuating language or gestures might also be considered provoking actions. Victim-precipitated robbery involves cases in which the victim has acted without reasonable self-protection in the handling of money, jewelry, or other valuables. The victims are seen to bring about their victimization (Hernandez &amp Fisher, 2012).

The subcategories of this theory are active and passive precipitation (Hernandez &amp Fisher, 2012). Active precipitation is when the victim knowingly provokes the offender. Passive precipitation is when the victim unknowingly motivates or threatens the offender (Hernandez &amp Fisher, 2012).

For instance, in the case of Her Majesty the Queen v Kenneth Rhodes. The judge stated that incitement of the wrongdoer by the complainant is an obvious mitigating factor (Becker, 2011). The judge acknowledged that there were inviting moments, which might have been interpreted wrongly by the defendant (Becker, 2011). The court ruled that Rhodes be on probation, but the decision was later appealed and reversed. Facts the defendant and plaintiff met at a party where they kissed held hand and danced together, later they walked to a high way where the complainant was raped (Becker, 2011).

Routine activity theory

This theory emphasizes how routine events provide opportunities for crimes. This is restricted to a conventional society, the routine activities of potential, either bring about or hamper the chances for crimes (Andresen &amp Farrell, 2015).

This theory is dependent on the motivation of the offender, where, if the routine is complex, a motivated offender will still strike. And suitable target, where the better the routine, the easier the victimization (Andresen &amp Farrell, 2015).

Gangs are either involved in prostitution, human trafficking, and drug trade daily. According to National Gang Intelligence Center Report, an ABT member was arrested for enticing a 16-year-old boy into prostitution as part of initiation (NGIC, 2013). Thus, as a result of routine activities of gangs, it becomes easy for them to commit crimes since they have taken it as a mode of life.

References

Becker,&nbspS.(2011). Her Majesty the Queen and KennethRhodes.&nbspTRANSCRIPTOF PROCEEDINGS had and taken before the Honourable Mr. Justice Dewar,in the City of Thompson, Province of Manitoba, on the 18th day ofFebruary, 2011.&nbsp,1-88. Retrieved fromhttps://feministlegalforum.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/rhodes-transcript-sentencing.pdf

Felson,&nbspM.,In Andresen,&nbspM.&nbspA., &amp In Farrell,&nbspG. (2015).&nbspThecriminal act: The role and influence of routine activity theory.Springer.

Hernandez,&nbspA.&nbspM.,&amp Fisher,&nbspB.&nbspS. (2012). Criminology and criminaljustice, criminological theories.&nbspTheOxford Handbook of Criminological Theory.Retrieved fromhttp://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199747238.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199747238-e-27

NationalGang Intelligence Center. (2013). 2013 National gang report.Retrieved fromhttps://www.fbi.gov/file-repository/stats-services-publications-national-gang-report-2013