Criminal Justice/Corrections

CriminalJustice/Corrections

1.Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination in the CriminalJustice System

Thereis sufficient evidence that racial disparities, stereotyping andprejudice exist in all the decision-making points in the judicialsystem. Discrimination, for instance, has been observed in most casesand sentences. One compelling evidence is shown by the fact thatAfrican Americans who are involved in the murder of whites are farmuch more likely to receive the capital punishment compared to thosewho kill African-Americans, or the whites who murder their fellowwhites. Stereotypes by gender, race and ethnicity have also cloudedthe justice system to the extent that the police and other lawenforcement officers were granted permission to judge who to stop,search and even arrest.

Changesregarding prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination has not beenvery profound. Several studies indicate that unprejudiced individualsmay become extremely prejudiced against perceived enemies, especiallyunder conditions such as wars and economic conditions. Desegregationpractices in schools and various learning institutions have notchanged that much. Ethnic cliques have been observed that they try todefend their identity and at times their race, ethnicity, and socialclass. The developments in laws and policies have assisted inaltering such prejudiced attitudes. We can see the changes indifferent areas. Specifically, women have been allowed to vote,engage in education and scholarly work, own property and even getemployment especially the female judges in the judicial system.However, the changes do not necessarily alter the society’sattitude towards minority groups.

Cooperativelearning, the interaction between students and positivecollaborations have played an important role in the reduction ofhostility. Although this strategy does not necessarily assurehostility eradication between conflicting groups, it may influencethe lives of the individual and eventually change their attitudes.Also, stereotyping and discrimination are elements that are stillpersistent, and there is need holistic methods and culturaldifferences in a way that the relations will improve. There is acurrent speculation that the main reason as to why prejudice persistsis because the appropriate conditions such as equality, support,cooperation and proper acquaintance rarely coincide.

2.White Collar Crime and how they differ from other Crimes

Whitecollar crime has been described as a law-breaking activity that isdone by a respectable person during his undertaking of occupation andresponsibilities. As such, this type of the offense is done byindividuals with a high social status. An enhanced definitionsupposes that white collar crime is non-violent and usuallyfinancially motivated, committed by businesspeople, professionals andgovernment officials. Examples of such offenses include fraud,forgery, bribery, money laundering and embezzlement among others.

Thescope of white collar crimes is affected by the class position aswell as the organization aspect. In this regard, the amount of moneythat has been lost can be utilized as a measure. However, this has tobe done by first identifying the number of victims and hencedetermining the extent of the damage. Often, the victims are thepeople who are shareholders, employees or even investors and anyother group which is legally supposed to benefit from theorganization or institution. The offenders are those people whoseposition provide an opportunity that can be used to commit the crime.

Thevictims of white collar crime can either be voluntary, exploited byswindlers who assure quick and easy returns, or involuntary who aremisused on a day to day basis in commercial transactions as well aseconomic and professional dealings. Unintended victims are usuallycomposed of creditors, employees, and customers. The perpetrators, onthe other hand, utilize non-violent, indirect and impersonal means toperform the crime. During this process, the victims are usuallyanonymous to the offenders, and they then apply means that areexploitative and manipulative with the objective of making profits.Most of the time, business people make it a habit of taking highrisks to maximize profit while other white collar criminals arecaptivated by the hope of making big money at the end of the day.

Bluecollar crime, on the other hand, is a contrast to the white collarcrime where it was initially associated with the lower class society.This description has been further streamlined in the contemporaryworld to include those crimes that have been committed due topassion, rage and emotion rather than by calculated moves. Therefore,crimes that are different from white collar ones include theft,assault, sex crimes, burglary, property crimes, drug crimes and alsothose actions that are intended on causing harm, injury or even deathto the people or damage of ownership.

3.Define Privilege and its Intersection with Race, Class, and Gender

Individualsare in the center of an intersection that encompasses power,inequality, and privilege. This intersection is influencedsignificantly by the class, ethnicity, race and gender. Each personexists at the intersection of many forces that shape theirperspective regarding the world and also how other people discernthem. Many of the issues that arise requiring one to understandcompletely about how the aspects of race, class, and gender interactinterdependently. Each and every individual must belong to socialclass, racial group and also sexuality.

Assuch, the social inequalities and privileges interact andinterrelate. For instance, regarding class, the rich people are theones who make laws, and they are therefore more privileged.Similarly, the patriarchal characteristic of the law arises becausemen tend to make the law, and also most of them are judges. Lookingat the race as a factor, ethnicity has been highly associated withgenocide, slavery, and even the Holocaust.

Theindividual cannot choose to be in one intersection and avoid another.On the contrary, one can fall into either of the classes that arepresent. Take for example a colored woman. She cannot choose to betreated as a member of the opposite sex today and then later on as amember of a minority group. She is affected by both elements,although sometimes the race may be more important in some situationswhile I others, the gender.

Privilegeis, therefore, a tool that tends to make inequalities appear asnormal happenings. We come to realize later that in most instances,the wealthy rarely appreciate the structural barriers toaccessibility, male privilege has a significant influence on how theyview equality in gender and likewise, white privilege has an effecton how whites understand the issues related to race and ethnicity.Class, race, and gender are considered as the starting point towardsan understanding of the privilege aspects. A classic scenario is thelack of concern with racism and sexism, the whites and men tend tofocus on eliminating the racist and sexist labels while at the sametime benefiting from their privileged positions that are related tothese terms.

References

Henrickson &amp Sereebutra, LLC. (2012, nOVEMBER 16). Difference Between Blue Collar and White Collar Crimes. Retrieved from Henrickson &amp Sereebutra, LLC: http://www.criminallawfirmmarietta.com/Criminal-Defense-Blog/2012/November/Difference-Between-Blue-Collar-and-White-Collar-.aspx

Criminal Justice/Corrections

CriminalJustice/Corrections

1.Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination in the CriminalJustice System

Thereis sufficient evidence that racial disparities, stereotyping andprejudice exist in all the decision-making points in the judicialsystem. Discrimination, for instance, has been observed in most casesand sentences. One compelling evidence is shown by the fact thatAfrican Americans who are involved in the murder of whites are farmuch more likely to receive the capital punishment compared to thosewho kill African-Americans, or the whites who murder their fellowwhites. Stereotypes by gender, race and ethnicity have also cloudedthe justice system to the extent that the police and other lawenforcement officers were granted permission to judge who to stop,search and even arrest.

Changesregarding prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination has not beenvery profound. Several studies indicate that unprejudiced individualsmay become extremely prejudiced against perceived enemies, especiallyunder conditions such as wars and economic conditions. Desegregationpractices in schools and various learning institutions have notchanged that much. Ethnic cliques have been observed that they try todefend their identity and at times their race, ethnicity, and socialclass. The developments in laws and policies have assisted inaltering such prejudiced attitudes. We can see the changes indifferent areas. Specifically, women have been allowed to vote,engage in education and scholarly work, own property and even getemployment especially the female judges in the judicial system.However, the changes do not necessarily alter the society’sattitude towards minority groups.

Cooperativelearning, the interaction between students and positivecollaborations have played an important role in the reduction ofhostility. Although this strategy does not necessarily assurehostility eradication between conflicting groups, it may influencethe lives of the individual and eventually change their attitudes.Also, stereotyping and discrimination are elements that are stillpersistent, and there is need holistic methods and culturaldifferences in a way that the relations will improve. There is acurrent speculation that the main reason as to why prejudice persistsis because the appropriate conditions such as equality, support,cooperation and proper acquaintance rarely coincide.

2.White Collar Crime and how they differ from other Crimes

Whitecollar crime has been described as a law-breaking activity that isdone by a respectable person during his undertaking of occupation andresponsibilities. As such, this type of the offense is done byindividuals with a high social status. An enhanced definitionsupposes that white collar crime is non-violent and usuallyfinancially motivated, committed by businesspeople, professionals andgovernment officials. Examples of such offenses include fraud,forgery, bribery, money laundering and embezzlement among others.

Thescope of white collar crimes is affected by the class position aswell as the organization aspect. In this regard, the amount of moneythat has been lost can be utilized as a measure. However, this has tobe done by first identifying the number of victims and hencedetermining the extent of the damage. Often, the victims are thepeople who are shareholders, employees or even investors and anyother group which is legally supposed to benefit from theorganization or institution. The offenders are those people whoseposition provide an opportunity that can be used to commit the crime.

Thevictims of white collar crime can either be voluntary, exploited byswindlers who assure quick and easy returns, or involuntary who aremisused on a day to day basis in commercial transactions as well aseconomic and professional dealings. Unintended victims are usuallycomposed of creditors, employees, and customers. The perpetrators, onthe other hand, utilize non-violent, indirect and impersonal means toperform the crime. During this process, the victims are usuallyanonymous to the offenders, and they then apply means that areexploitative and manipulative with the objective of making profits.Most of the time, business people make it a habit of taking highrisks to maximize profit while other white collar criminals arecaptivated by the hope of making big money at the end of the day.

Bluecollar crime, on the other hand, is a contrast to the white collarcrime where it was initially associated with the lower class society.This description has been further streamlined in the contemporaryworld to include those crimes that have been committed due topassion, rage and emotion rather than by calculated moves. Therefore,crimes that are different from white collar ones include theft,assault, sex crimes, burglary, property crimes, drug crimes and alsothose actions that are intended on causing harm, injury or even deathto the people or damage of ownership.

3.Define Privilege and its Intersection with Race, Class, and Gender

Individualsare in the center of an intersection that encompasses power,inequality, and privilege. This intersection is influencedsignificantly by the class, ethnicity, race and gender. Each personexists at the intersection of many forces that shape theirperspective regarding the world and also how other people discernthem. Many of the issues that arise requiring one to understandcompletely about how the aspects of race, class, and gender interactinterdependently. Each and every individual must belong to socialclass, racial group and also sexuality.

Assuch, the social inequalities and privileges interact andinterrelate. For instance, regarding class, the rich people are theones who make laws, and they are therefore more privileged.Similarly, the patriarchal characteristic of the law arises becausemen tend to make the law, and also most of them are judges. Lookingat the race as a factor, ethnicity has been highly associated withgenocide, slavery, and even the Holocaust.

Theindividual cannot choose to be in one intersection and avoid another.On the contrary, one can fall into either of the classes that arepresent. Take for example a colored woman. She cannot choose to betreated as a member of the opposite sex today and then later on as amember of a minority group. She is affected by both elements,although sometimes the race may be more important in some situationswhile I others, the gender.

Privilegeis, therefore, a tool that tends to make inequalities appear asnormal happenings. We come to realize later that in most instances,the wealthy rarely appreciate the structural barriers toaccessibility, male privilege has a significant influence on how theyview equality in gender and likewise, white privilege has an effecton how whites understand the issues related to race and ethnicity.Class, race, and gender are considered as the starting point towardsan understanding of the privilege aspects. A classic scenario is thelack of concern with racism and sexism, the whites and men tend tofocus on eliminating the racist and sexist labels while at the sametime benefiting from their privileged positions that are related tothese terms.

References

Henrickson &amp Sereebutra, LLC. (2012, nOVEMBER 16). Difference Between Blue Collar and White Collar Crimes. Retrieved from Henrickson &amp Sereebutra, LLC: http://www.criminallawfirmmarietta.com/Criminal-Defense-Blog/2012/November/Difference-Between-Blue-Collar-and-White-Collar-.aspx