Best Practice




Women’sHealth Initiative (WHI) has conducted several health trials over thepast years, to show the causes of some conditions that affect women,especially the postmenopausal ones. Examples of these conditionsinclude cardiovascular disease, cancers, and fractures. The analysisof these trials is critical to health providers who use them asguidelines when administering care to their patients. The world isevolving, making some of these guidelines become outdated. Resultingare new practices for treating these conditions. The changes call forthe nurses and other health providers to understand both the oldWomen’s Health Initiative guidelines and the current bestpractices, to help in developing suitable guidelines for handling theabove-mentioned conditions, today and in the future.


WHIstudies have tried to identify effective treatment guidelines to helpin prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorder that hascaused death to many women globally. New studies, as is evident inthis paper, have tried to improve on some of these outdatedguidelines. WHI guidelines on CV treatment require one to change adiet and focus on eating vegetables and fruits, but the results ofthis change have insignificant contributions to the treatment. To seesignificant changes, one needs to change a whole lifestyle. Dr.Campbell’s research calls for different practices to those of WHI.He suggests of looking at the underlying causes of CV throughawareness and communication.

Disorderfrom WHI

Amongthe disorders analyzed by Women Health Initiative is cardiovascular(CV) disorder. CV is a disease or a condition that causes narrowingand blocking of blood vessels that could cause a heart attack.According to the guidelines from Women Health Initiative DietaryModification Trial, change of diet can reduce the risks ofcardiovascular disorder. The trial recommended the use of a diet thatis low in fat, but high in vegetables and fruits. In testing theeffectiveness of the trial, postmenopausal women raging between 50 to80 years, from different ethnic groups were used as participants. Itsobjective was to help these women reduce fat to 20% and raise theirconsumption of vegetable and fruit (Assafet al., 2016).After several years of follow-up, diet change showed minimal changesin cardiovascular effects. The reduced fat intake lowered the risk ofa cardiovascular disorder by around 2 per cent. The study concludedthat a diet that reduced intake of fat and increased vegetable andfruit intake, have small significance in reducing cardiovasculardisease risk. It recommended for increased diet interventions, toreduce the risks of cardiovascular disease.


Aresearch by Dr. Campbell from North Carolina Heart and Vascular UNCHealth care has tried to improve on WHI studies, to help the healthproviders stay in line with the changing world medical practices. Inthe study titled ‘Women and Cardiovascular Disease: AddressingDisparities in Care’, Campbell (2012) &amp McSweeney et al. (2011)outline updated practices that lead to disparities in cardiovasculardisease in women. According to the authors, the main causes of thesedisparities include inadequate aggression in treating the underlyingcauses of CV disorder, poor medical therapy observance, and latepresentation (McSweeneyet al., 2011).There is also less social support for women with CV disease. Forthere to be some improvements, current practices suggest increasedcommunity awareness and prevention, to raise women’s knowledge ofcardiovascular disorder risks. This is possible through coordinationamong clinicians, government, and healthcare consumers. Anothercurrent practice includes better training of the health providers andthe inclusion of extra women in research and clinical trials.Finally, there is also need to create connections between a patientand health. Through communication, advocacy, and education, fewerwomen will die from cardiovascular disease.

Comparisonbetween WHI and Current Practices

WomenHealth Initiative Study illustrates that cardiovascular disorderamong postmenopausal women results from the high fat intake. It urgeswomen to take a diet that is low in fat but high in vegetables andfruits. Women also need to change their diet and lifestyle to reducethe cardiovascular effects significantly. Current practices citeinadequate research in determining the underlying causes of CVdisease and lack of therapy adherence. Dr. Campbell proposesincreased awareness and communication between health providers andconsumers to assist in realizing the underlying causes of CV disease.

Importanceof Difference in the Practices

Thedifferences in the best practices above are essential to women’shealth since they offer different ways of treating a cardiovasculardisorder. The study by WHI does not show the benefits ofcommunication between health providers and the patients. It onlysuggests a change of diet by the patient. In trying to improve on theWHI study, Dr. Campbell shows that, the solution to cardiovascularillness does not only rely on the effort of health consumers. Thehealth providers need to keep communicating with their patients toimprove the patient-doctor relationship. The differences furtherindicate that heath studies need to look at the underlying causes ofsome diseases affecting women (Haas, 2016). By noting thesedifferences, more research will emerge addressing the remaininginformation that may help in improving women’s health in future.

Importanceof the s to Clinic Practice

Thecurrent best practices put emphasis on increasing women’s knowledgeof risks involved with cardiovascular and other chronic diseasesthrough local events. They also advocate for a better connectionbetween physicians and patients and improved health providers`training. These practices need incorporation in clinic practicebecause many women are dying of breast cancers, cardiovasculardiseases, and fractures due to inadequate knowledge. Health sectorsneed to increase community awareness regarding CV or other diseasesaffecting women, as many continue to die of these diseases due tolate treatments. Increased awareness will also help women to seektimely treatment, thus avoiding deaths. Communication is anothercurrent best practice that requires inclusion in clinical practice.Lack of connection between a health provider and patients is abarrier to care (Tharpeet al., 2013).Health sectors need to have a good communication system that enablespatients to maintain a connection with their health providers evenwhen miles apart. The connection eliminates some causes of chronicdiseases that affect women which includes poor medical therapyadherence and late presentation.


Theresearch by WHI has helped in setting a positive trend in the healthsector. It has led to the emergence of challenging views from Dr.Campbell. The different guidelines from the two studies play acrucial role in improving women’s health globally, by being a guideto many care providers. Health providers need to note that knowingthe underlying causes of the diseases affecting women may be a key toidentifying the best treatment and prevention guidelines.


Assaf,A., Beresford, S., Risica, P., Aragaki, A., Brunner, R., &amp Bowen,D. et al. (2016). Low-Fat Dietary Pattern Intervention andHealth-Related Quality of Life: The Women’s Health InitiativeRandomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JournalOf The Academy Of Nutrition And Dietetics,116(2),259-271.,J. C.,

Campbell,K. (2012). Women and Cardiovascular Disease: Addressing Disparitiesin Care. WomenAnd Cardiovascular Disease: Addressing Disparities In Care.Retrieved from

Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention. (2012b). Women’s health.Retrieved from

Haas,R. E. (2016). Women and Cardiovascular Disease, AddressingDisparities in Care.&nbspJournalof Radiology Nursing,&nbsp35(2),163.

Pettey,C. M., Souder, E., &amp Rhoads, S. (2011). Disparities in Women’scardiovascular health. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic &ampNeonatal Nursing, 40(3), 362–371.

NationalInstitutes of Health. (2012). Office of Research on Women’s Health&nbsp

Tharpe,N. L., Farley, C., &amp Jordan, R. G. (2013). Clinical practiceguidelines for midwifery &amp Women’s health (4th ed.).Burlington, MA: Jones &amp Bartlett Publishers.