ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER 19
AttentionDeficit Disorderis a disease that has been on the rise in the contemporary society.The disease has affected asignificantnumber of both children and adults. Treatments for the disease comein various ways. The treatments are however effective as well ashaving side effects to the patients. Moreover, these proceduresexist in differentforms that attract abuse from a section of the population. Asignificantpopulation of the community readily abuses the most importanttreatments for the defect, Ritalin,and Adderall. Thisis giventheir ability to make someone have anextensiveconcentration and also a payment to detail in whatever they do. Thesedrugs also have side effects that affect people in differentproportions given their bodily actions. Therefore, through theanalysis of these diseases, the research paper takes an insight intothe drugs, side effects, and abuse to the non-patients. Through thepaper, the above points are exclusively discussed to bring out theactual state of the medicinesin the society.
Whatare ADHD/ADD, causes, diagnosis, and prescription?
Attentiondeficit disorder is common in the contemporary society among bothchildren and adults. The disease, which affects people and how theyrelate to others in the society, spells anexceedinglydisruptive character and aseverelearning character. The individualswho are affected by this disorder in most case are impulsive to thenormal society and have a different way of handling issues comparedto the averageperson. The attention disruptive disease makes one havethe worst kind of social behavior (Barkley et al. 2010). The syndromeis not caused by any sortof mental or physical state but is a product of hyperactiveindividuals. Thus, various treatment options are devolved for thedisorder.
Inchildren who arediagnosedwith the defect, there isvarious prescriptions given to them as per the physicians. Thephysicians provide a better alternative to the excellenttreatment of the disorder and containing the impulsive behaviors ofthe patients. Therefore, parents ought to look for the options thatare available when handling the children and go for those that willbe of fewerside effects to their children (Attention Deficit, 2011). Thedisorder has evolved over the years and has acquired new names todefine the manner in which it affects the patients. Notably, bothchildren and adults have a high likelihood of attracting the disease.
Thereare numerous instances of the increase of the defect among children.There are improvementsin the society, which arealso markedby the fact that the children are even more unnoticed by theirparents (Kessler et al. 2006). Various demographics were affected bythe disease and it is a prevalent occurrence among the families thatearn an estimated range of $70,000 and above in a year. The defectsdo affect the middle and high income-earning householdsin the society.
Thereare various drugs, which are used to treat the defect. The drugs areinstrumental in helping the hyperactive individual have their livesin areasonablemanner. One of the traditionaldrugs utilizedfor the treatment of the defect is Ritalin. An estimated 90% of thepatients that suffer from the disease areprescribedto the drug (Katusic et al. 2005). In some cases, there are instanceswhere the drug isoverprescribed,and the patients take too much of the drug. Ritalin, like all otherchemical substances has asignificantside effect when used in an excessive proportion. Despite helping totune the individuals to the healthysociety, they are also in a condition whereby they areexposedto vulnerabilities (Barkley et al. 2010). Ritalin has similar effectsto the body as the cocaine and can make an individual high just likecocaine. The drug isalso associatedwith the occurrence of conditions such as heart failure.
Ritalinisusedas a drug among the students who believe that it ameliorates theiracademic excellence and makes them alert in the classrooms.Therefore, the conditions associated with various detriments to thesociety. Through the making of the communitya better place, Ritalin has been anactivedrug to help shape the patients. However, the drug has also beenabused (DuPaul & Stoner, 2014). ADHD iscausedby various factors in the society. Primarily, the defect is ahereditarycondition that isgenetically transferredamong members of a family. In case one person is diagnosed with theinfection, there are greater chances that the other membersof the family will also suffer from the same disease (Bussing et al.2012). The disease affects a family line since it is likely to becaused by the lack of specific instruments in the body such asdopamine. The lack of Dopamine in the genes makes one have a priordisposal to attracting the disease. ADD can also be caused by theintake of much sugar in the body. The defect will arise of someonefromaparticularyoung age takes in asignificantamount of sugar, whichwillharm his or her systems in the end (Kalbag & Levin, 2005).Moreover, poor parenting also leads to their children having amassive strain go the ADD. The lack of guidance for the childrengives the parents a lack of expertise in dealing with the defectsthat they develop. The brain injuries that people suffer destroyspecific parts of the brain thus making the exhibit the symptoms ofthe disease. The watching of too much television and inadequateexercises exposes children to attracting the ADHD defects (Barkley etal. 2010). There are several causes of the disorder in the society,and they will wear down on an individual in their childhood years.The prematurity is a sign of ADHD in most common instances. Leadpoisoning is also a factor that causes the disorder in most cases andmakes them more likely to getchronic than the other causes.
ADHD/ADDisdiagnosedby physicians who do after a keen observation of the children whosuffer from the defects. The disease manifests itself in childrenbefore the age of seven. The disease also has symptoms that arelong-lastingand can stretch even for six months. Therefore, learningof illnessis anintegralissue (Attention Deficit, 2011). In carrying out the diagnosis, thechildren undergo a situation whereby they areexamined,and their history checked upon.In some cases, the disease appears in children from an age as earlyas five (Stein et al. 2012). The characteristics that the childrendisplay are thus used to look into their systems to determine if theyare suffering firm the disease or not.
Afterthediagnosis of the disease, there are various drugs, which are givenout to the children to help with making them better. The medicationsthat aregivento the children,in this case,include the Amphetamines such as Dexedrine (Castellanos et al. 2006). There are non-stimulant drugs used to control and treat the diseasesuch as Straterra The most common class of medicationsthat areusedfor the defect include Ritalin and Metadata.The drugs aretherefore givento the child,and the manner of their intake prescribed to them in accordance withage and also the intensityof the symptoms.
Beforeprescribing a drug for the child, there are various steps which aretaken to assist with the better treatment of the disease. The doctorshave to determine the differencesbetween the children and their energy tocome up with a definite way of handling the disease. Moreover, witha view to seea befitting treatment schedule, the doctors require a keenconsultation with the relevant individuals (DuPaul & Stoner,2014). The treatment plans should be made in consultation to theparents and the teachers to the students. Thiswillgive a fulloverview of the children and their activities that also show how theyreact to various illnesses. Therefore, the treatment, whenaccordingly conducted to fit the children’s schedules, exhibit agreatextent of profitability in handling the disease, and suiting thechildren (Attention Deficit, 2011). In some cases, peer coaching isan alternative worth consideration for the parents in schools.Therefore, the use of the drugs and the provided interventions proveadvantageousto the making of a better society for the children that suffer fromADHD.
ADHDmedication to the children should be carried out with a keensupervision to help test the various balances of the children(Wolraich et al. 2005). When the disease istreatedwithout any supervision, the patients can have proliferated eithersignor overdose the drugs. Therefore, in the treatment of the illnessit is integral to look into the manner in which the disease affectstheir system and how they use the drug.
Purposeof Conducting Study
Inconducting this study, the researcher seeks to establish the variousside effects of the medicationsthat aregivento a patientwho suffersfrom ADHD and their significant effects onthe people that do not suffer from the disease. The ADHD syndromeand its treatment options are well discussed in the followingresearch top unravel the effects to the patients and thenon-patients. Notably, the studyalso looks into the possible abuse options for the drugs.
AdderallPrescription, Uses, Side Effects and Abuse
Adderallis a drug that is famously used to treat the individuals who arediagnosedwith ADHD. The drug is a combination of amphetamine anddextroamphetamine, which are nervous stimulants. The drugs areinstrumental in increasing the general ability to focus and theattention that one gives aparticularitem (Barkley et al. 2010). Through administering the drug to apatient who suffers from ADHD, their behavior iscontrollable and can bechangedfor the better.
Adderallincreases the concentration of dopamine by restricting thereabsorptionof the neurotransmitter. The drug,therefore,provides the necessary component that the patients lack in theirbodies, thus the control of their behaviors is noted and themonitoring of their actions. Adderall is a drug that has newprescriptions and makes the entire body of the patients havethe changes that are required (Attention Deficit, 2011). Through theadministration of the drug, the bodies of the patients are channeledto behave inflightor a fight condition that makes them more active.
Thereare different kinds of the medicine that areprescribedto the patients. Thereare tablets and capsules that are administeredto the patients because of their symptoms and size. The drug alsocomes in different sizes that are integral in determining the kind ofinfection that the particular patient is sufferingfrom(Bussing et al. 2012). Thus, through the use of the Adderall, thepatients are well treated.
Adderalluse in young children below six years old
Childrenwho exhibit the symptoms of ADHD in most cases are provided with theAdderall drug to help make their situations better. The drug iscommon in use for children below the age of six due to its high ratesof efficiency (Marcus et al. 2005). The drug helps to reinstate theirnormalcy and makes them behave in the required manner. AdderallXR, which isprescribedin most occasions,helpsto calmthe children and make them have the right set of doses.
Inthe initial phase when a child isdiagnosedwith the disease, the drug should be taken in lower proportions toacquaint the body with it. The children, who in most cases experiencedefects with growth and weight have a long run remainingon their bodies. Some of the immediate effects on the childreninclude the lack of appetite and vomiting. The drug is an efficientone for the children when they take it in. Through the intake of thedrug, the children have a high capability of tackling issues thatthey could not have otherwise handled (Bussing et al. 2012). Throughthe ADHD, the children have an inclination to having better lives,therefore. Nonetheless, the side effect of the drugs on the childrenis not as much bespoken in comparison to those that affect the olderpeople.
Adderallpresents a better alternative to the treatment of children who sufferfrom the defects of ADHD. Therefore, the use of the Adderall drug isasignificantstep for the members of the society as it helps calm the children.
Adderalluses among the general patients and side effects
Overthe recent years, there are high rates at which the generalpopulation gets the prescription for Adderall (Polanczyk et al.2007). Adrugis a leading option for those who are suffering from ADHD. Throughthe administration of Adderall,there are people with fewerside effects and also have to experience some other strenuous factorsthat decrease their general body functioning. Thus, using Adderall,the population has had a better alternative totreating the attention disorder.
Thereare various kinds of the drugs that aregivento the patients depending on their bodies and various specifications.The different forms of the drugs are dependent on the patients thatarediagnosedwith the disease. The patients are also given the drug because of theintensity of the disease (DuPaul & Stoner, 2014). There arevarious changes that the doctors overprescribe the drug. In othercases,the doctors have aparticularform that enables them to test the activity and the strength of thepatient before they diagnose the disease. The ADHD drug is aneffectiveone in the treatment of both adults and the young patients.
Afterthe diagnosis to the drug, the patients have to deal with variousissues that come after the intake of the Adderall drug. Despite thefact that the drug has a better making in comparison to the previousones, it still has some side effects that significantlyaffect the patients in a detrimental manner. Overly, the drug ishabit forming and can lead to the formation ofaddictionin the patients. Those suffering from the chronic syndrome have ahard time getting the disease. Therefore, the intake leads tostronger cravings.There are various side effects to the patients who use the drug. Tothose who suffer from the symptoms of ADHD, the intake of Adderallwill actuallylead to the restlessness of the patients. There are other associatedside effects such as the nervousness of the patients, excitability ofthe patients, headaches in some cases, blurred vision, constipation,stomach pains, nausea, and the loss of appetite in most cases.
Othersituationsin the intake of the drug may lead to intense side effects. These areside effects such as the cause of hair loss, chronic fever, stomachpains, increased blood pressure, and the growthinthe heart rates of the individual patients. It is notable that amongthe patients that suffer from the disease and have symptoms of thedisease, the symptoms are temporary, as they will get minimal thetime that one has fully become used to the drug. The Adderall drugmakes the body systems of the patients to behave in different waysbefore accepting it (Castellanos et al. 2006). After the acceptanceof the body to the drug, the patients will exhibit rare instances ofbeing affected by the drug. Therefore, the side effects of Adderallto the patients are minimal in the extreme cases. The patients whosuffer from the disease, after some time of using the drug, the bodysystem will get functional with the drug and also sync with it. Thefurther intake of the drug does not result ingreater cases of side effects but also make the patients haveaparticularsystem of dealing with their infections. Therefore, the ADHD syndromedrug is effective when used over a period.
Ritalinusesamong the general patients and side effects
Theuse of Ritalin among the patients who suffer from ADHD has been acollectiveexperience. The drug is among the first ever made by the physiciansto discern on how to treat the disease. Ritalin gained anexcellentreputation in the society over its ability to handle the conditionsthat werepresentedto it. Using Ritalin, the society was better,and the doctors found better ways of prescribing it to patients.
Thedrug had numerous instances of side effects to the patients as someof the genetic orientation of some could not allow for them to takein the drug. Therefore, by taking Ritalin, the patients go affectedby grievous side effects. Thisledto the making of new generational drugs to handle the ADHD syndrome.However, the diseases are well treated with the use of Ritalin. Evenin the contemporary world, Ritalin still maintains popularity indealing with the conditions.However, there are side effects that the drug poses to the users inmost cases. These side effects do not notably take a long time, butthey present themselves in the initial phase that a person has madeit. Ritalin side effects span aconsiderablecontroversy on the application of the drug but since it takes a shorttime after the patients have beendiagnosedwith the disease, the drug’s efficiency in undoubted.
Ritalinis a drug that ismostly usedby the individuals who present uncontrollable sleepiness. The drugsarealso usedamong the ADHD patients (Compton & Volkow, 2006). However, theside effects of Ritalin include insomnia, sweating, skin rash, andpalpitations.
Inextreme cases, just like Adderall, the drug cancause an elevated rate of the heart and also lead to the loss ofweight of the patients. Vision problems are also a common occurrencein Ritalin and cold feet and hands. These side effects make thepatients feel uncomfortable in most cases. However, when the patientsget used to the drug in the due course of their dosage, they get evenbetter methods of ensuring that the side effects are minimal.Therefore, using Ritalin in the systems of the patients, the sideeffects get minimal,and the numbness of their body systems reduces.
Ritalinisrankedas a substance that is highly vulnerable to physical dependency and agreat extent of psychological changes among the users. Therefore, themedicine stands out as a great warning to the userstheprescriptions should be made in a precisemannerto ensure that they do not affect the patients in greatly negativeways.
Straterrausesamong the general patients and side effects
Stratterais a non-stimulant medication for the ADHD. The drug is among the fewthat are used to treat the disorder and have no stimulativecharacteristics. The primarydrugs used to the disease are stimulants to increase the activity ofthe brain and the entire body to help normalize the individuals.Despite the difference in morphology with the other drugs, Straterrahas someside effects that make it a negatively addictive drug too to thepatientsthedrug causesthe singlepatients experience in some part similar symptoms as the others.
Themajor side effect of the drug includes insomnia where the patientslack sleep and also a decreased appetite for food. Using the drug,the patients get to have a skin rash and also develop constipation.The following are instances, which show that straterrahas similar side effects in comparison to the previous drugs that areusedfor the disorder.
Someof the other side effects of the drug include the occurrence ofsexual difficulties. The drug results inthe loss of interest in sex and the inability for the patients to cumwhen they use it. These side effects are not present in the otherdrugs, which are used to treat the disorder. Through the intake ofthe drug, it is also notable that the menstrual periods of the femalepatients will become painful than the normal levels. Thus, Straterramakes the patients havesomeside effects, which lead tosignificantresults.
PotentialAbuse ofthe ADHD drugs by non-patients
Overthe recent years, there are increased chances of ill-treatmentfor the drugs by non-patients. Among the youths and the young adults,the drugs have become a common form of abuse to achieve variousstandards. In the instance that the non-patients abuse the drugs,there are certain functions that they seek to increase in their bodysystems. The misuseof the drug warrantiesthat they will have elevated systems functionality thus they aim athaving even better ways of approaching issues.
Amongthe school-going addicts to the drug, the ADHD stimulant drugs, themost prevalent reason of abusing them is the cause for higher levelsof concentration in the classroom and an increase in the brainactivity towards doing the exams (Harpin, 2005). Therefore, using thetechniques that they have to reach the drugs, the school goingindividuals abuse the drug to have higher grades and read a lot moreon the curriculum.
Thework going abusers of the drugs,on the other hand,have a great influence in the abuse of the stimulant drugs. Thedrugs, which have a high rate of making someone active, make theworking class fall for it. For the people who have full hour jobs,the abuse of the drug is coupled with an advantageamong the rest of the employees and thus againto the entire company (Compton & Volkow, 2006). The workers whoabuse the drug tend not have a high level of concentration and payattention to detail in the workplaces.Therefore,the ADHD drugs are better at making them have their desired levels ofconcentration and activity.
Onthe other hand, there aresome side effects of the drugs that arenoticedwhen thenon-patients take them.The side effects aregroupedin various ways to show how they affect these non-patients. Notably,the obtainingof the medicine is ina manner that arescrupulous and is not recommended by the authorities. Therefore theabuse of the drug is classified in a similar class as the misuseof the other hard drugs.
Theaddiction to the drug has severe health effects to the abusers.Through the intake of the drug, the abusers are assured of a betterand an operational system. However, with the intake of the drug,regular panic attacks are noticeable in the abusers. On the otherhand, those who abuse the drug for greatwitness an instance of damage to the nasal vessels. Thus, the drug ismore detrimental to their health that it is functional. These arenotably coupledwith some side effects such as constipation and the regular ones thatareexperiencedby those who are suffering from the disease. Therefore, the abuse ofthe drug among the non-patients is a health concern and deservesaddress in the society.
Comparisonof Adderall and Ritalin
Adderalland Ritalin are the two most common kinds of medication for the ADHDdisorder. The drugs are simulative and help increase thefunctionality of the systems of the patients (Faraone &Biederman, 2005). The two drugs are generationally apart and presentvarious effectiveness to the patients. Through taking the drugs, asignificant similarity isnoticed.The ADHD drugs are in a great way effective in channeling thepatients to their normalcy and making them act in the requiredmanner.
However,through the intake of the drugs too, there are certain side effects,which arenoticed.While Adderall was made to curb the difficultside effects of Ritalin, they both have numerous side effects andhigh rates of addiction (Harpin, 2005). Once a patient is addicted tothe drugs, they will have agreatinstance of the needto have the medicine supplied to them before they carry out anyactivity. The side effects of Ritalin are also excessivelydetrimental to the systems of the patients, more so the femalepatients who have to struggle with the great rates of change in theirsystems. Ritalin has sexual side effects, which Adderall does nothave.
Thedrugs on the other hand also present themselves as a potential groundforabuse by the non-patients. The school going youths and working classindividuals take the drugs because of their highly simulativecharacteristics (Harpin, 2005). Through taking the two drugs, theworkers are assured of increased effectiveness and performances soare the students. The intake of these drugs among the non-patientshas proliferated and led to the making of a tendency in the society.With a declaration that both of the drugs are potential tosignificantabuse and addiction among the patients, there are better avenues foraddressing the effects if the drugs.
Despitethe side effects and high rates of substanceabuse andill-treatment,the drugs are better for the people that suffer from ADHD (Compton &Volkow, 2006). The disorder is controlled through the two drugs andsustained at better levels. The drugs are also made to have betterways of use in the treatment of the diseases.Therefore, the ADHD drugs are better for the entire society.
Inconclusion, ADHD is becoming awidespreadoccurrence in the contemporary society. Through the administration ofvarious drugs, both generic and non-generic, the disorder issustained in the community.One of the most populardrugs used for the treatment of the diseaseisAdderall, Ritalin,and Strattera.The following drugs are adequateinthe treatment of the wholepatients and make them a better placing in the society. Therefore,through the administration of these drugs to the patients, thetreatment procedure is a better avenue. However, the side effects ofthe drugs are detrimental to the health of the patients, though theytake place for a short while in the body of the patients. Throughthese instances, the patients have proliferated rates of breathingbut after being customized to the drug, they get a better feeling.The ADHD drugs are therefore necessaryfor the making of a better society.
ATTENTION-DEFICIT,S. O. (2011). ADHD: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis,evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorderin children and adolescents. Pediatrics,peds-2011.
Barkley,R. A., Murphy, K. R., & Fischer, M. (2010). ADHDin adults: What the science says.Guilford Press.
Bussing,R., Koro-Ljungberg, M., Noguchi, K., Mason, D., Mayerson, G., &Garvan, C. W. (2012). Willingness to use ADHD treatments: a mixedmethods study of perceptions by adolescents, parents, healthprofessionals and teachers. Socialscience & medicine,74(1),92-100.
Castellanos,F. X., Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Milham, M. P., & Tannock, R. (2006).Characterizing cognition in ADHD: beyond executive dysfunction.Trendsin cognitive sciences,10(3),117-123.
Compton,W. M., & Volkow, N. D. (2006). Abuse of prescription drugs andthe risk of addiction. Drugand alcohol dependence,83,S4-S7.
DuPaul,G. J., & Stoner, G. (2014). ADHDin the schools: Assessment and intervention strategies.Guilford Publications.
Faraone,S. V., & Biederman, J. (2005). What is the prevalence of adultADHD? Results of a population screen of 966 adults. Journalof Attention Disorders,9(2),384-391.
Harpin,V. A. (2005). The effect of ADHD on the life of an individual, theirfamily, and community from preschool to adult life. Archivesof disease in childhood,90(suppl1), i2-i7.
Kalbag,A. S., & Levin, F. R. (2005). Adult ADHD and substance abuse:diagnostic and treatment issues. Substanceuse & misuse,40(13-14),1955-1981.
Katusic,S. K., Barbaresi, W. J., Colligan, R. C., Weaver, A. L., Leibson, C.L., & Jacobsen, S. J. (2005). Psychostimulant Treatment and Riskfor Substance Abuse Among Young Adults with a History ofAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: APopulation-Based, BirthCohort Study. Journalof Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology,15(5),764-776.
Kessler,R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Demler,O., … & Spencer, T. (2006). The prevalence and correlates ofadult ADHD in the United States: results from the NationalComorbidity Survey Replication. AmericanJournal of Psychiatry,163(4),716-723.
Marcus,S. C., Wan, G. J., Kemner, J. E., & Olfson, M. (2005). Continuityof methylphenidate treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder. Archivesof Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine,159(6),572-578.
Polanczyk,G., de Lima, M. S., Horta, B. L., Biederman, J., & Rohde, L. A.(2007). The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review andmetaregression analysis. Americanjournal of psychiatry.
Stein,M. A., Weiss, M., & Hlavaty, L. (2012). ADHD treatments, sleep,and sleep problems: complex associations. Neurotherapeutics,9(3),509-517.
Wolraich,M. L., Wibbelsman, C. J., Brown, T. E., Evans, S. W., Gotlieb, E. M.,Knight, J. R., … & Wilens, T. (2005).Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among adolescents: a reviewof the diagnosis, treatment, and clinical implications. Pediatrics,115(6),1734-1746.